IB Music-Elements of Music-FORM
Terms in this set (48)
12 Bar Blues
One of the most prominent chord progressions in popular music. The blues progression has a distinctive form in lyrics, phrase, chord structure, and duration. In its basic form, it is predominantly based on the I, IV, and V chords of a key.
12 Tone composition / Dodecaphonic
A method of composition that holds all twelve tones of the chromatic scale available for use, not restricting the music to those notes of major, minor, or other restrictive scale.
32 Bar Form (AABA)
Usually consisting of 32 bars, the AABA form was style-defining for the popular music of the United States. It is the basic form of most of the so-called Tin Pan Alley songs.
The most popular structure is ABCBA.
A sectional structure for a piece of music based on repetition, in reverse order, of all or most musical sections such that the overall form is symmetric, most often around a central movement. The sections need not be repeated verbatim but must at least share thematic material.
AB or AABB statement and departure, with no return to the complete opening section
A passage of music which links 2 sections (usually falls between 2 choruses)
Call and Response
Form of music based on repetition where a leader (caller) sings or plays, and is echoed by a group of singers/performers (responders)
Type of musical composition popular in the baroque era when it was much used as a vehicle for variation on a repeated short harmonic progression, often involving a fairly short repetitive bass-line (ground bass) which offered a compositional outline for variation, decoration, figuration and melodic invention. In this it closely resembles the passacaglia.
Same music, same words
A section of music which comes at the end of a piece and rounds it off. Closing material.
Used to create variety and build drama and tension. New material.
The transformation and restatement of initial material, often contrasted with musical variation, carried out upon portions of material treated in many different presentations and combinations at a time. The difference between development and variation is that variation depends upon one type of presentation at a time.
The initial presentation of the thematic material of a musical composition, movement, or section. The use of the term generally implies that the material will be developed or varied.
In sonata form, the exposition is "the very first major section, incorporating at least one important modulation to the dominant or other secondary key and presenting the principal thematic material."
In a fugue, the exposition is "the statement of the subject in imitation by the several voices; especially the first such statement, with which the fugue begins."
An instrumental composition in which a composer yields to his imagination in regard to form and organization of the composition. A fantasia follows no particular pattern or form, and is generally of fairly large dimensions. In the Baroque era it often served as an introductory composition to a fugue. Has its roots in the art of improvisation. Because of this, like the impromptu, it seldom approximates the textbook rules of any strict musical form.
The way music is structured or organized. If music is a journey, think of this as a road map.
A form of composition popular in, but not restricted to, the Baroque era, in which a theme or subject is introduced by one voice, and is imitated by other voices in succession. Usually only the first few notes of the subject are imitated exactly, then each voice deviates slightly until the next time it enters again with the subject. Generally the voices overlap and weave in and out of each other forming a continuous, tapestry-like texture.
A section of music at the beginning of the piece. Can often establish the key and tempo. Opening material.
A vocal music form that flourished in the Renaissance, originating in Italy. Generally written for four to six voices that may or may not be accompanied. In modern performance they are usually presented a cappella and set to short love poems, though the words are occasionally about death, war, etc. They were extremely popular in England and Italy, and also produced in France, Germany, and a few in Spain. Characterized by word painting and harmonic and rhythmic contrast. Each line has its own tune, rather than the entire composition having a single tune with harmonic accompaniment.
A polyphonic vocal style of composition. The motet was popular in the middle ages, when it consisted of a tenor foundation upon which other melodies were added. The texts of these voices could be sacred or secular, Latin or French, and usually had little to do with each other, with the result that the composition lacked unity and direction. During the 14th century, isorhythm came into use and other rhythmic refinements, somewhat unifying the sound and texture of the motet. By the Renaissance, the separate voices of the motet had adopted the same text (by this time the texts were religious almost without exception) and each voice was considered a part of the whole rather than a whole in itself, thus finally giving the motet unity and grace.
The smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic, rhythmic unit.
Sections of music found in large scale works such as symphonies or sonatas
A play or film in which singing and dancing play an essential part
A dramatic work in one or more acts, set to music for singers and instrumentalists
A short rhythmic, melodic, or harmonic pattern that repeats for a significant portion of the work
A piece of music played at the beginning of a ballet, opera or musical
A continuous variation form of composition. The basis for the form is a four bar ostinato over which variations are written in the other voices. It is similar to the chaconne and is moderately slow in triple meter.
Pop Song Structure
Most songs are made up of of three different sections: Verse, Chorus, and Bridge. Many hit songs have the form: Verse/Chorus/Verse/Chorus/Bridge/Chorus.
A musical composition, usually brief, that is generally played as an introduction to another, larger musical piece. The term is applied generically to any piece preceding a religious or secular ceremony, including in some instances an operatic performance.
Another word for chorus
A free composition. The term was first used for piano compositions in 1810. It may be defined as a free fantasia of national, epic, or heroic character.
Section A is repeated several times with new sections presented between each repetition. Follows the basic form: A,B,A,C,A. Section A can be repeated with variations. Composers generally try to achieve some contrast between section and the use of differet keys for different sections is very common.
Allows sections of music to become familiar and fixed in our memories that way.
Restating a motive or theme at a higher or lower pitch level
Sonata Allegro Form
Based on A,B,A (Ternary) Form in that the first large (A) Section is reprised at the end of the form. One of the most common forms in classical and romantic music. Commonly used in the first movement of sonatas, string quartets, symphonies and even concerts. It has three main sections: Exposition, Development, and Recapitulation.
Form that consists of the same musical material for multiple verses but with different lyrics. (example: Amazing Grace - same melody repeated with new words each time) A,A,A,A, etc... (verse, verse, verse, verse)
A group of pieces which are intended to be played together
Music with 3 sections where the first and last are the same. A,B,A form. Statement, departure, statement.
An important melody which is usually played more than once. Melodic idea that is the building block in the construction of a larger musical work.
Expanding on a theme by varying its melodic outline, rhythm or harmony.
A,B,C,D, etc... Form where the music is relatively continuous, non-sectional, and / or non-repetitive.
Tin Pan Alley
Also known as the 32 Bar Form or AABA Form. The nickname of the 28th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenue in Manhattan New York. Between ca. 1895 and 1930, a majority of music publishers were settled in this district and responsible for the flourish of the American popular song during that time. Many songwriters and composers worked for these publishers. The songs were published as sheet music, the base for an essential part of the Jazz standard repertoire.
A fantasia-like composition for a keyboard instrument that displayed virtuosity in the art of "touching" the keyboard. In the Baroque era the toccata often served as an introduction to a fugue.
A repeat of a theme but with modifications. A, A1, A2, A3, A4, etc... Some aspects of familiar material are altered but the original is still recognizable. Thematic development is variation. It depends upon one type of presentation at a time, not to be confused with Development, which can have many.
Same music, different lyrics.
Form that consists of a Verse, then Chorus, Verse, Chorus, etc...
Verse Chorus with a Bridge
Form that consists of a Verse Chorus, Verse Chorus, Bridge, Chorus
In sonata-allegro form, the final presentation of the original theme group (return to the first and second theme), first presented in the exposition. Most often it is entirely in the tonic key of the composition. This is the third and final main division of sonata-allegro form.