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Chapter 13 Water Resources APES
Terms in this set (95)
% Readily Available Fresh Water
% Illness in developing countries caused by unclean drinking water
% Water on Earth that is fresh
Water covers what percent of the Earth's surface?
Precipitation that does not infiltrate the ground or evaporate
Region from which water drains into a body of water
Precipitation that infiltrates the ground and percolates downwards through voids in soil and rocks
Zone of Saturation
Depth at which voids are filled with water except for an occasional air bubble
Boundary between Zone of Saturation and un-saturation
Rises in wet weather and lowers in dry
Porous, water-saturated layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock through which ground-water flows
Aquifer with water table as top
Bounded above and below by semi-permeable beds of rock and clay
When drilling goes to confined aquifer, water flows without a pump, diagram
Area of land through which water passes downwards or laterally into an aquifer. wetlands, swamps...
Movement of ground water
About a meter a year
Usually non-renewable, but can be used in a renewable manner
2/3rds of surface runoff
is lost by seasonal flooding
Reliable surface runoff
counted on year after year, - normal surface runoff=reliable
We now withdraw __% of surface runoff in the world
Number expected to be raised to how much in 2025 of how much surface runoff we use
Greatest user of water
Industry uses what percent of water
Percent of water used by cities and residences
Period where precipitation is 70% lower than normal and the rate of evaporation is higher than normal
How much water in USA is used from nonrenewable aquifers?
2025 some say that in __ western states water shortages will be drastically bad.
United States Geological Survey
We are withdrawing groundwater supplies __ times faster than the replenishment rate
__ countries now face severe water shortages
By 2050 over __ countries will have severe water resources
How many people lack access to clean drinking water, according to who?
1 out of every 6, UN (United Nations)
2025, __ people will bot have access to clean water
What is not having enough necessary clean water called?
Soil dries out so much that it cracks
The Big Dry
Between 1978 and 2008 the total area on Earth experiencing severe or extreme drought more than tripled. By 2059, more than 45% of the planet could experience extreme drought.
Aquifers provide __ of the World's drinking water
In USA aquifers supply almost __ drinking water in rural areas, __ in urban areas, and __% of irrigation water.
all, 1/5, 37%
World's 3 largest grain producers
India, China, USA
These plus __, __, __, __, __, and __, are depleting groundwater supplies faster than other countries (mostly in trying to grow food for its people)
Saudi Arabia, Iran, Yemen, Israel, Mexico, and Pakistan
Largest in the world
Area allowed plain state to become productive provides __% of the US agriculture output.
Area allowed plain state to become productive provides __% of the US beef output.
Value to America of the Ogallala Aquifer area?
32 billion a year
Southern parts are depleting rapidly. 10-40 times the renewable rate. Water table in area lowered over 100 feet.
Texas has decreased/lost its irrigated farmland by __%
By 2012 __ of aquifer will be gone.
When aquifer is used and the land above collapses because no more water to support it anymore.
Oil rich, Water poor
__% of Saudi Arabia's water comes from desalinization.
1986-2004, Saudi Arabia invested heavily in __.
Wells and drilled into an ancient aquifer.
Next 10-20 years __ of Saudi Arabia's wells will be dried up.
Withdrawing Groundwater Advantages
Drinking and irrigation
Cheaper to Extract than most surface water
Exists almost everywhere
Renewable (If not over-pumped or contaminated)
Withdrawing Groundwater Disadvantages
Aquifer depletion from over-pumping
Aquifer remains depleted for decades or centuries
Increased cost and contamination from deeper wells
Salt water intrusion from the coast
As water table drops farmers must buy larger pumps and dig deeper, using more electricity too.
More expensive, so raises food prices
3 problems with removing groundwater
Land Subsidence, Sinkholes, Saltwater Intrusion
Groundwater Depletion Prevention
Waste less water
Subsidize water conservation
Limit number of wells
Do not grow water intensive crops in dry areas
Groundwater Depletion Control
Raise price of water to discourage waste
Tax water pumped from wells near surface waters
Set and enforce minimum stream flow levels
Divert surface water in wet years to recharge aquifers
Structure built across a river to control the river's water flow
built along sides of rivers to control flooding
Water collected behind a dam
Main goal of a dam
Capture and store water run-off and release it as needed to control flooding, generate electricity, supply water for irrigation, drinking water, recreational activities
US has __ dams, world __.
Reservoirs now hold _-_times more water than flows naturally in the World's rivers
__ of the World's dams produce __% of the World's electricity.
Reservoirs have displaced__-__ people worldwide and caused many species of __ such as __ to become endangered or extinct.
40-80 million, fish, salmon
Provide irrigation water
Water for drinking
Can produce cheap electricity (hydropower)
Flooded land destroys forest, cropland, and displaces people
Risk of failure and devastating downstream flooding
Deprives downstream cropland and estuaries of nutrient rich silt
Disrupts migration and spawning of some fish
Three Gorges Dam
Built across the Yangtze river
Three Gorges Dam
World's largest dam when completed
__% of electricity produced would support a city __ times larger than LA, forever...
10, 10, Equal to 22 large coal fired power plants
TGD will create a reservoir __ miles long.
TGD will displace __ people
TGD area floods have killed more than __ people in the last __ years
Increase __ of area because allow cargo ships in because increase depth
Large amounts of sewage will create __ and will become backed up behind the dam.
Inflatable dams first used in Japan now spreading like crazy
__ of 177 of the worlds largest rivers run freely to the ocean
__ running dry and __ shrinking
14 major dams, supply electricity for 25 million people
US largest desalinization plant
Saudi Arabia has __ desalinization plant in the world called,
removal of dissolved salts from ocean water or slightly salty groundwater
evaporation method, lots of energy
pumped at high pressure through thin membrane that only allows water through
__ desalination plants in __ countries provide __% of freshwater used by humans.
15,000; 125; 0,3%
Disadvantages of Desalination
Uses lots of electricity, 3-5 times as expensive as conventional water methods. produces large amounts of brine which has to be disposed of. China plans to build enough plants to provide 16-25% of water used in coastal areas.
Best plan to fix water problem?
Reduce waste, raise price, fix leaks/make most efficient
Accounts for 70% of worlds water use
__% of irrigation reaches desired crops
Reducing Irrigation Water Waste
Avoid growing water thirsty crops in dry areas
Irrigate with treated urban waste water
Irrigate water at night to reduce evaporation
Reducing Water Waste
Recycle water in industry and collect/reuse household water for irrigating lawns and non-edible plants
Raise water prices
Fix water leaks
Sustainable water use solutions
Waste less water and subsidize water conservation
Raise water prices
Protect forests, wetlands, mountain glaciers, watersheds, and other natural systems that store and release water
Water Use and Waste
Repair water leaks
Native plants that need little watering for yard
Use water-saving toilets, shower heads, and faucet aerators
Reducing Flood Damage- Prevention
Preserve forests and wetlands
Preserve and restore wetlands in floodplains
Tax development on floodplains
Use floodplains primarily for recharging aquifers, sustainable agriculture and forestry.
Reducing Flood Damage- Control
Straighten and deepen streams (channelization)
Build levees or flood walls along streams
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