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Agile Scrum Foundation Certification Prep

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What is Scrum?
A lightweight agile project management framework mainly used for software development.
What are the 3 Scrum Roles?
1. Scrum Master
2. Scrum Product Owner
3. Scrum Team
What are the Scrum Events?
1. Sprint Planning Meeting
2. Daily Scrum Meeting
3. Sprint Review Meeting
4. Sprint Retrospective Meeting
What is Waterfall?
A sequential design methodology that flows like a waterfall through the 8 stages.
What is Spiral?
A methodology that uses prototyping and mockups. Focuses on technical risks.
What methodology requires the most experience?
Agile
What is WIP?
Work In Progress
What is the heartbeat of agility?
Working at a set pace that is fast enough but not having to work too fast to achieve results.
What does the Scrum Master do?
They make sure the scrum process runs smoothly and deals with the roadblocks and issues. A great facilitator and team servant.
Who created Scrum?
Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland
When was scrum created?
In the 1990s.
Is Scrum defined or empirical?
Empirical
What does the Product Owner do?
Responsible for representing the interests of stakeholders and are responsible for defining initial requirements and objectives.
What does The Development Team do?
Responsible for getting the technical work done for the project.
What is DoD?
Definition of Done
What is a Product Vision?
A single sheet that explains the purpose of the project.
What is a Release?
The grouping of Sprints.
What is the most common Sprint length?
2-6 weeks
What is a Sprint planning meeting?
The initial meeting where the Sprints are planned out.
What is Grooming?
An important exercise where the team discusses the Sprints.
What is a daily scrum meeting?
A daily meeting where the team discusses progress.
What 3 questions are asked in a daily scrum meeting?
1. What did you accomplish yesterday?
2. What are you going to accomplish today?
3. What impediments do you currently have?
How long is a daily scrum meeting?
Between 10 and 15 minutes
What is a Sprint review?
A meeting that is all about the product.
What is PBI?
Product Backlog Item
What is a Sprint Goal?
The overall goal of a Sprint.
What is a basic description of Scrum?
1. 3 roles
2. 4 artifacts
3. 5 meetings
What is a Product Backlog?
A prioritized list of items that need to be delivered.
What is a Teamboard?
One of the 4 artifacts. It keeps track of the progress of the PBIs during a Sprint.
What is WBS?
Work Breakdown Structure
How do you correctly read a WBS?
From top to bottom.
What is a WBS used for?
A graphical representation of a projects scope.
What always starts with "as a (role)... I need... In order to...?"
User Stories
What must have acceptance criteria and is SAFE?
User Stories
What does SAFE stand for?
Success
Advance
Failure
Error
What are the 3 C's in a user story?
Card
Conversation
Confirmation
We must INVEST in our Stories. What does INVEST stand for?
Independent
Negotiable
Valuable
Estimatable
Small
Testable
What is a burn up chart?
A chart that shows the status of the overall project.
What is a burndown chart?
A chart that shows the status of the current sprint.
During the Daily Scrum three questions are answered.
Which question is one of these questions?

A. What obstacles are in the way?
B. Who should take on the next task?
C. Which requests of the customer did we receive?
A. What obstacles are in the way?
A Scrum Team realizes that it may be late in delivering a component that another Scrum Team is waiting for.

What is the best forum to discuss this issue and find a resolution?

A. Daily Scrum of either Team
B. Scrum-of-Scrums
C. Sprint Review
D. Sprint Retrospective
B. Scrum-of-Scrums
A Scrum Team thought its a good practice to clearly define a checklist of items that must be completed before calling a story "completed."

What artifact are they likely to use for this?

A. Burn-Down Chart
B. Definition of Done
C. Product Backlog
D. Sprint Backlog
B. Definition of Done
Near the end of a Sprint, the Development Team realizes that they will not be able to complete the stories they had committed to.

What is the best course of action for the Development Team?

A. Add resources and team members to meet the goals of the current Sprint.

B. Ask the Product Owner to decide which stories can be delayed until the next Sprint.

C. Decide on a new Definition of Done for the Sprint Backlog Items.
B. Ask the Product Owner to decide which stories can be delayed until the next Sprint.
An often used best practice is to define User Stories according to the acronym 'INVEST'. The 'S' of 'INVEST' means Small.

Regarding the User Story in a Sprint, what must be small?

A. the number of Sprints needed to realize the User Story
B. the number of team members involved
C. the Story Points or Ideal Hours involved
D. the length of the written-out User Story
C. the Story Points or Ideal Hours involved
Which of the following statements best describes the role that the Daily Scrum plays in the monitoring of a Scrum project?

A. The Daily Scrum helps the Scrum Master to update the burn-down chart.

B. The Daily Scrum gives the Development Team insight into their progress and their issues.

C. The Daily Scrum lets the Product Owner review the progress of the Team.
B. The Daily Scrum gives the Development Team insight into their progress and their issues.
The S of INVEST stands for Small.
Which items on the product backlog should be small?

A. All items in the Product Backlog
B. The items on the top of the Product Backlog
C. The items on the bottom of the Product Backlog
D. Only items on the Sprint Backlog must be small
B. The items on the top of the Product Backlog
A Scrum Team is estimating User Stories. The Scrum Master suggests the Planning Poker technique.
What is the process of Planning Poker?

A. Compare the Story to reference Stories and then estimate it.

B. Estimate on your own, then discuss everyone else's estimates.

C. Sort all Stories based on their relative effort required.
B. Estimate on your own, then discuss everyone else's estimates.
What is an assertion of the Agile manifesto?

A. We value contract negotiation over customer collaboration.

B. We value following a plan over responding to change.

C. We value processes and tools over individuals and interaction.

D. We value working software over comprehensive documentation.
D. We value working software over comprehensive documentation.
The Development Team determines that it has over-committed itself for a Sprint.

Who should be present when reviewing and adjusting the Sprint work?

A. The Development Team, the Scrum Master and the Product Owner. The Stakeholders should be consulted.

B. The Development Team and the Scrum Master. The Product Owner should be consulted.

C. The Development Team only. The Product Owner should be consulted.
C. The Development Team only. The Product Owner should be consulted.
How should 'Done' be defined when multiple Scrum Teams are working on a single product?

A. All Scrum Teams work towards an integrated Definition of Done.

B. Each Scrum Team must define and use their own Definition of Done.

C. The Scrum Master defines when the item is Done.
A. All Scrum Teams work towards an integrated Definition of Done.
A Scrum Team selects a Product Backlog Item (PBI) for the Sprint Backlog.

What must the Development Team do to finish the Product Backlog Item it selects?

A. As much as can be done in the Sprint before the deadline.

B. As much as is required to satisfy the Definition of Done.

C. Analyze, design, program, test and document the Product Backlog Item.
B. As much as is required to satisfy the Definition of Done.
Which of the following is a desirable characteristic of information radiators?

A. Current
B. Detailed
C. Provided on a "need to know" basis
D. Stable
A. Current
How long should it take a 5 member Scrum Team to finalize the Sprint Planning for a 3 week Sprint?

A. 3-6 hours
B. 3-6 days
C. as long as it takes
A. 3-6 hours
According to Agile principles, what should be the pace of development?

A. Fast
B. Increasing
C. Sustainable
C. Sustainable
Why does the Daily Scrum need to be held at the same location and time?

A. The booking of a room needs to be done in advance for the duration of the Sprint.

B. The constant time and place is best for continuity of the Scrum framework.

C. The Project Manager needs to get the status updates at a given time every day.
B. The constant time and place is best for continuity of the Scrum framework.
In the past 8 Sprints, the Scrum Team has completed 85 story points worth of work altogether. The Scrum Team has been asked to start working on a new project which is estimated at 64 story points.

How many Sprints would be needed to complete this project?
A. 5 sprints
B. 7 sprints
C. 8 sprints
D. 10 sprints
B. 7 sprints
A Team is transitioning into Scrum. They already had a role called Project coordinator, who facilitates interactions, removes roadblocks and acts as the process coach of the Team.

What should this role be called after the transition?
A. Project coordinator
B. Project manager
C. Scrum Master
D. Scrum project manager
C. Scrum Master
A Scrum Team estimates a Story using the Planning Poker technique. The Team decides to allocate 5 Story Points to a Story, because the developers estimated 2 points and the testers estimated 3 points.

Which statement is true regarding this scenario?

A. Points are assigned by the Scrum Master, not by the Development Team.

B. Points are assigned for the overall Story, not for parts of the Story.

C. Points are never estimated, but always determined beforehand.

D. The Development Team also needs to ask the Product Owner about the estimate.
B. Points are assigned for the overall Story, not for parts of the Story.
A customer requests a report that summarizes functionality added and defects found and fixed, right at the end of a Sprint.

Who can best prepare this report?
A. The Product Owner
B. The Scrum Master
C. The Development Team
D. This type of report should not be prepared.
B. The Scrum Master
What is the primary responsibility of a Scrum Master in order to keep a Scrum Team working at its peak level of productivity?

A. Keeping high priority features at the top of the Product Backlog.

B. Not allowing changes to the Product Backlog once the Sprint begins.

C. Supporting the Development Team's decisions and resolving their issues.
C. Supporting the Development Team's decisions and resolving their issues.
Collaboration is the most important parameter for the success of a Scrum Team.

What term best describes this type of interaction?

A. Distributed team working
B. Information radiator sharing
C. Osmotic communication
C. Osmotic communication
The Product Backlog is ordered from most valuable to least valuable. There are a few criteria that determine how valuable a Product Backlog Item is.

What are these criteria?

A. Benefits, Cost, Risks
B. Benefits, Cost, Size
C. Time on the backlog, Cost, Risks
D. Time on the backlog, Cost, Size
A. Benefits, Cost, Risks
While reviewing a bar style release Burn-Down chart, a newly appointed Scrum Master observed that the bottom of the bar had moved above the horizontal axis between Sprint 3 and 4.

What happened in Sprint 3?

A. The Development Team finished less than the allocated stories.
B. The Development Team finished more than the allocated stories.
C. Work got added to the Product Backlog.
D. Work got removed from the Product Backlog.
D. Work got removed from the Product Backlog.
A Sprint just concluded and it was a disaster. None of the planned stories were completed and the review had to be cancelled. Senior management wants to establish accountability for this.

Who is ultimately accountable for the success or failure of a Scrum project?

A. The Product Owner
B. The Scrum Master
C. Senior Management
D. The Development Team
D. The Development Team
Who knows most about the progress towards a business objective or a release?

A. The Product Owner
B. The Scrum Master
C. The Development Team
A. The Product Owner
For a Sprint, progress is monitored in a Burn-Down Chart.
What does a Burn-Down Chart show?

A. The amount of completed work
B. The amount of remaining work
C. The velocity of the Development Team
B. The amount of remaining work
A Scrum Team failed to meet the Sprint objectives. One of the key members of the Development Team fell ill and was away for 2 days right at the beginning of the 4-week Sprint.

What is the most likely reason that the Team did not meet the Sprint objectives?

A. The Product Owner is unable to prioritize.
B. The Development Team is lacking skills.
C. The Team did not plan the Sprint effectively.
D. The Development Team is over-worked.
C. The Team did not plan the Sprint effectively.
Your team uses a Kanban board. The Work in Progress (WIP) limit of a column on the Kanban board is reached.
What is expected of you when this happens?

A. Assign work to co-workers in the next column to free capacity.

B. Enlarge the Work in Progress limit and keep working.

C. Help the co-workers in the column with the bottleneck.

D. Wait until work is pulled to the next column to free capacity.
C. Help the co-workers in the column with the bottleneck.
A Product Owner wants a story to be completed in two days. The Development Team member working on the Story reckons it will take five days.

The Scrum Master feels it should take three days. A subject matter expert, who has worked on similar Stories in the past, thinks it should be at most a one day effort.

Whose estimate should be used for planning?

A. The Product Owner's
B. The Scrum Master's
C. The Subject Matter Expert
D. The Development Team
D. The Development Team
Senior management wants to regularly audit if the Scrum Team is following Scrum practices and principles.

Who is in the best position to conduct such an audit?

A. The Product Owner
B. The Scrum Master
C. The Development Team
D. The Testers
B. The Scrum Master
The Product Owner is going on a three-week vacation. The Team should be closing the current Sprint and starting a new Sprint at the end of the first week of the Product Owner's vacation.

What is the best way to continue the Scrum rituals in this situation?

A. Each Scrum Team should ideally have two Product Owners to provide cover.

B. The Product Owner should be requested to delay his vacation by a week.

C. The Scrum Master should take over and cover for the Product Owner.
C. The Scrum Master should take over and cover for the Product Owner.
What is the definition of Velocity of a Team?

A. A shared understanding of how fast a Sprint must be done.
B. The optimum Work in Progress limit for each Sprint.
C. The number of Story Points a Team can finish in 1 Sprint.
D. The sum of all completed Sprint Backlog Items.
C. The number of Story Points a Team can finish in 1 Sprint.
A Scrum Team works on a project in 2-week Sprints. During the Sprint Planning meeting of the fifteenth Sprint, the Scrum Master says:

"We have seen from the last 12 Sprints that we cannot deliver potentially shippable increments in 2 weeks. Let's increase the duration for Sprint 16."

Should the duration be increased?

A. Yes, because the Scrum Master can change the Sprint duration.

B. Yes, because past Sprint performance is a good reason to change.

C. No, because the Sprint duration cannot be changed, for any reason.

D. No, because only Development Team members may change Sprint duration.
B. Yes, because past Sprint performance is a good reason to change.
Which contract type is adaptive and therefore fits well with the Scrum way of working?

A. The contract type "Time & means or fixed unit"
B. The contract type "Fixed price"
C. Neither contract type
A. The contract type "Time & means or fixed unit"
According to Agile principles, which type of team can come up with the best requirements, architectures and design?

A. Co-located
B. Experienced
C. Self-organized
D. Well trained
C. Self-organized
Agile planning happens at multiple levels including a daily plan, a sprint plan and a strategic plan.

What term best describes the multi-level planning?

A. Planning Onion
B. Planning Poker
C. Sprint Planning
A. Planning Onion
A team member from a Scrum Team feels that a senior technical architect from another team may have some valuable insights and feedback about the product.

What is the best event to ask for this feedback?

A. Daily Scrum
B. Sprint Planning
C. Sprint Retrospective
D. Sprint Review
D. Sprint Review
One person is working on the code and another person is observing, critiquing and occasionally switching roles.

What practice is being followed here?

A. Code review
B. Continuous integration
C. Pair programming
D. Test-driven development
C. Pair programming
What is a Sprint?

A. A brainstorming session in Extreme programming to generate design ideas.

B. A race between two developers to see who can complete a feature fastest.

C. One iteration in the Scrum methodology.

D. The last iteration in the Scrum project, when the Team works long hours to finish the project.
C. One iteration in the Scrum methodology.
In what decade was most of the science of project management first created?

A. 1940s
B. 1950s
C. 1960s
D. 1970s
B. The science of project management was first formally created by the U.S. Air
Force, U.S. Navy, Dow and Dupont chemical companies during the 1950s.
What is the average success rate for waterfall projects?

A. 14%
B. 18%
C. 25%
D. 33%
A. Only about 14% of waterfall projects are deemed successful. 57% are challenged
and 29% are deemed failures
What is the average success rate for Agile projects?

A. 25%
B. 33%
C. 42%
D. 55%
C. Agile development has a success rate of 42% with 49% of projects being
challenged and 9% failed.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major development methodologies?

A. Agile
B. Compression
C. Spiral
D. Waterfall
B. The three (3) major development methodologies include:

- Waterfall
- Spiral
- Agile
Which of the following is a problem caused by using a waterfall methodology?

A. Requirements are allowed to flex and adapt to the needs of the stakeholders

B. Stakeholders are constantly able to see working versions of the product of the project

C. Stakeholders commonly expect to work with the team on a daily basis to deliver the project results

D. The process gives the appearance that all the requirements are accurately defined at the beginning of the project with the expectation of little or no changes throughout the project
D. A key concern with using the waterfall methodology is that it often gives the
appearance that all the requirements are accurately defined at the beginning of
the project with the accompanying expectation of little or no changes throughout
the project.
Which of the following kinds of projects are best suited to take advantage of Agile development?

A. Disorganized projects
B. Simple projects
C. Large projects
D. Complex projects
D. Agile development is most effective at managing complicated and/or complex
projects.
Which of the following is a term used to denote an organization's partially finished goods waiting for completion and eventual sales, or the value of these
items?

A. Work in process
B. Work in progress
C. Goods in process
D. All of the above
D. In Agile development it is most commonly called Work in Progress, or WIP, but it
can also be called Work in Process or Goods in Process.
Which of the following core Agile values is not correct?

A. Teams & interactions over processes & tools
B. Responding to change over following a plan
C. Working software over comprehensive documentation
D. Customer collaboration over contract negotiations
A. The four core values for Agile development include:
- Individuals & interactions over processes & tools
- Customer collaboration over contract negotiations
- Responding to change over following a plan
- Working software over comprehensive documentation
What percentage of software features are never used?

A. 35%
B. 40%
C. 45%
D. 50%
C. 36% of features are truly needed. Another 19% are rarely used, and a full 45%
are never used.
Which of the following is not considered a major founder of Scrum?

A. Ken Schwaber
B. Jeff Sutherland
C. Sidney Crosby
D. Mike Cohn
C. Scrum was largely founded by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland. Early on,
Mike Cohn was one of the largest contributors and was a founder of the Scrum
Alliance.
Which of the following is a key theoretical basis of Scrum?

A. Industrial process theory
B. Empirical processes
C. Defined processes
D. WIP
A. Scrum is based on industrial process theory which is focused on self organization
and emergence. Scrum also makes use of the empirical processes over defined processes but that was not part of the question.
Which of the following is not a key to empirical process management?

A. Visibility
B. Opportunity
C. Inspection
D. Adaptation
B. An empirical process focuses on three key aspects:

- Visibility: you must be able to see it.
- Inspection: you must actually look at it.
- Adaptation: you must change when you see the need.
Which of the following is not one of the three basic Scrum roles?

A. Product Owner
B. Scrum Master
C. Development Team
D. Sponsor
D. The three roles found in Scrum are:

- The Product Owner
- The Scrum Master
- The Development Team, sometimes just called the Team
Who is responsible to remove impediments identified by the Development Team, Product Owner or Scrum Master?

A. The Scrum Master
B. All stakeholders
C. The Product Owners
D. The Team
B. All stakeholders are responsible to remove impediments identified by the Development Team, Product Owner or Scrum Master.
Who is responsible to avoid distracting the Team after the Team has committed to the Sprint Goal?

A. All stakeholders
B. The Scrum Master
C. The Product Owners
D. The Team
A. All stakeholders are responsible to avoid distracting the Team after the Team has committed to the Sprint Goal.
Who coaches the Development Team in organizational environments in which Scrum is not yet fully adopted and understood?

A. The Product Owner
B. All Stakeholders
C. The Scrum Master
D. Business Stakeholders
B. The Scrum Master coaches the Development Team in organizational environments in which Scrum is not yet fully adopted and understood.
Which Scrum role observes end to end flow of product delivery and takes action to maximize the delivery of value?

A. Business Stakeholders
B. Scrum Master
C. The Team
D. Product Owner
B. The Scrum Master observes end to end flow of product delivery and takes action to maximize the delivery of value.
Which Scrum participant changes their mind, substitutes functionality, and adjusts priorities without paying exorbitant costs?

A. The Scrum Team
B. Product Owner
C. Scrum Master
D. Business Stakeholders
D. Business Stakeholders change their mind, substitute functionality, and adjust priorities without paying exorbitant costs.
Which Scrum participant regularly demonstrates a working product at the Sprint Review?

A. The Scrum Team
B. Product Owner
C. Scrum Master
D. Business Stakeholders
A. The Scrum Team regularly demonstrates a working product at the Sprint Review.
Which Scrum participant helps create and maintain the Sprint Backlog, Sprint Burndown Chart and Task Board?

A. The Development Team
B. The Product Owner
C. The Scrum Master
D. Business Stakeholders
A. The Development Team helps create and maintain the Sprint Backlog, Sprint
Burndown Chart and Task Board.
Which Scrum participant provides daily status updates to the Scrum Master at the Daily Scrum?

A. The Development Team
B. The Product Owner
C. The Scrum Master
D. No one
D. No one provides daily status updates to the Scrum Master at the Daily Scrum. Status updates are provided to and by the Scrum Team.
Which of the following states work will expand to fill the allotted time?

A. Hofstadter's Law
B. Brooke's Law
C. Parkinson's Law
D. Effinger's Law
C. Parkinson's Law states, "Work will expand to fill the allotted time."
Which of the following says your work will take longer than expected even when you take the Law in account?

A. Hofstadter's Law
B. Brooke's Law
C. Parkinson's Law
D. Effinger's Law
A. Hofstadter's Law states work will take longer than estimated even when taking
into account Hofstadter's Law.
Which of the following is not a key element of the Product Backlog?

A. A prioritized list of items to be delivered
B. Backlog items are relatively independent of the others
C. Backlog items must always be in the form of User Stories
D. Backlog items may be reprioritized at any time
C. The Product Backlog is a prioritized list of items to be delivered. These items are relatively independent of the others and may be reprioritized at any time.

However popular User Stories are, it is not a requirement that all requirements be
in the form of User Stories.
Which of the following is the primary tool used by a Scrum Team to track what work is being done on a project through an individual sprint?

A. A Gantt Chart
B. A Team Board
C. A Ranked Backlog
D. A Burndown Chart
D. A Burndown Chart is the primary tool used by a Scrum Team to track what work is being done on a project through an individual sprint.
Which of the following is not a key question used to evaluate a Work Breakdown Structure?

A. Can you accurately estimate the resources needed to produce the Work Packages?

B. Can you estimate how long the Work Packages will take to produce?

C. Are all Work Packages assigned to specific resources?

D. If you had to assign the Work Packages to someone else, would they understand exactly what to do?
C. The four key questions used to evaluate a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) include:

- Can you accurately estimate the resources needed to produce the Work Packages?

- Can you estimate how long the Work Packages will take to produce?

- If you had to assign the Work Packages to someone else, would they understand exactly what to do?

- If we do these items, and only these items, do we meet the success criteria?
Which of the four key questions concerning evaluating the WBS is most important?

A. Can you accurately estimate the resources needed to produce the Work Packages?

B. Can you estimate how long the Work Packages will take to produce?

C. If you had to assign the Work Packages to someone else, would they understand exactly what to do?

D. If we do these items, and only these items, do we meet the success criteria?
D. The most important question concerning WBS's is, "If we do these items, and only these items, do we meet the success criteria?"
Which of the following is NOT one of the three (3) key elements of a User Story?

A. The Actor
B. The Role
C. The Action
D. The Confirmation
A. User Story is made up of three components:

- The Role
- The Action, Result or Need
- The Confirmation or acceptance criteria
When discussing User Stories, which of the following is not part of making your acceptance criteria SAFE?

A. Success
B. Alternative Options
C. Failure
D. Error
B. The acronym SAFE is used when discussing User Stories to address proper acceptance criteria.

The acronym stands for:
- Success: Achieves desired result
- Advance: Moves closer to success
- Failure: Fail alternative path
- Error: Error exception, outside program control
Which of the following is not one of the three (3) Cs of user stories?

A. Card
B. Conversation
C. Capital
D. Confirmation
C. Stories are a very powerful tool for defining requirements. They largely work by using the 3 Cs:

Card - The brief description must have meaning to both the team and the product owner.

Conversation - This is the most important part. The card is not enough to write code. The card leads to a conversation to ensure understanding.

Confirmation - This is the success criteria. It gives us the high-level criteria against which the resulting feature will be tested.
Which of the following is a key strength of using User Stories?

A. User Stories make defining requirements easier

B. User Stories make requirements understood by all stakeholders

C. User Stories are more stable and allow requirements to change less frequently

D. Encourages effective communication about requirements through frequent face-to-face interactions
D. The strengths of using User Stories include:

- Encourages effective communication about requirements through frequent faceto-face
interactions.

- Avoids too much detail which can increase cost without any benefit [Forrester & Simula].

- Better adaptation to change.

- Acknowledges the fact that all requirements are NOT known at the beginning.
Which of the following is a key acronym when discussing User Stories?

A. CARE
B. INVEST
C. ALICE
D. SMALL
B. INVEST is a key acronym for User Stories. It means:

- Independent: From other stories.
- Negotiable: Not set in stone.
- Valuable: Don't do it if it's not necessary.
- Estimatable: You must be able to come up with realistic numbers.
- Small: Size matters!
- Testable: You must be able to prove it works.
When grooming backlog items, how much time should team members expect to spend on their grooming efforts?

A. 10%
B. 15%
C. 17%
D. 20%
A. The Scrum Guide and other writing recommends the Product Owner spends the
most time grooming the Product Backlog.

However, in general it is recommended
that 10% of total time be spent on grooming activities.
How does Scrum respond to the problem most projects face with unfocused project management?

A. Scrum shrinks the number of people involved in projects
B. Scrum employs Parkinson's Law to maintain focus
C. Scrum has teams that are dedicated to one and only one project
D. Scrum employs Hofstadter's Law
C. A big reason why Scrum works is because it shrinks the size of the project to a group of six plus or minus three. These smaller groups are focused on one and only one project. It is possible to allow Product Owners and Scrum Masters to work on multiple projects.
How does Scrum respond to the problem most projects face with a focus on task management?

A. Scrum employs Hofstadter's Law
B. Scrum has the Development Team manage deliverables on a daily basis
C. Scrum makes use of Gantt Charts to manage deliverables
D. Scrum makes use of Dempster's Law
B. Scrum makes use of a daily reporting model when the team reports to each other what was actually completed the previous day along with what they were going to complete that day and any impediments.
Which of the following is the best definition of the Student Syndrome?

A. The belief that further study is required to determine an estimate

B. The belief that there is too much time to complete the effort

C. The belief that there is more than enough time to complete the effort,
causing the student to not start until very late in the process

D. The belief that there is not enough time for the deliverable, so the person
starts work early
C. The Student Syndrome is the belief that there is more than enough time to complete the effort, causing the student to not start until very late in the process.
Which of the following tools is used to measure the progress of a project within a Sprint?

A. A Burn-Up Chart
B. A Cumulative Flow Chart
C. A Milestone Chart
D. A Burndown Chart
D. A Burndown Chart is used by Scrum Teams to measure the progress of the project during a single Sprint.
Which of the following is not a key question to determine if you are really doing Scrum?

A. Do you have a project sponsor?
B. Is there a recognized Product Owner?
C. Is there a Development Team with 3 to 9 members?
D. Is there a Scrum Master?
A. Project Sponsors do not exist in a Scrum Project. The Product Owner is responsible for the duties of a Project Sponsor.
Which of the following is not a key question to determine if you are really doing Scrum?

A. Does the Development Team create a plan each day at a Daily Scrum?

B. Is the increment inspected by stakeholders at a Sprint Review?

C. Is the Team using a Cumulative Flow Chart?

D. Does the Scrum Team conduct a Sprint Retrospective each Sprint?
C. Cumulative Flow Charts are a part of Scrum, but not all Scrum projects use a Cumulative Flow Chart. The only required chart is a Burndown Chart.
Additionally, a Burn-Up is strongly recommended.
In Alistair Cockburn's Shu-Ha-Ri, what does the Ha level of knowledge represent?

A. Following the rules exactly
B. Breakaway from the process & make it your own
C. Detach from the process and break some of the rules
D. Modify the rules as required
C. Cockburn's Shu-Ha-Ri contains three levels:

Shu - Level 1: Follow the rules.
Ha - Level 2: Detach from process. Break the rule.
Ri - Level 3: Breakaway from process & make your own. Be the rule.
A customer requests a report that summarizes functionality added and defects found and fixed, right at the end of a Sprint.

Who may best prepare this report?

A. The Product Owner
B. The Scrum Master
C. The team
D. This type of report should not be prepared.
B. The Scrum Master
What is the primary responsibility of a Scrum Master in order to keep a Scrum team working at its peak level of productivity?

A. Keeping high priority features at the top of the Product Backlog.

B. Not allowing changes to the Product Backlog once the Sprint begins.

C. Supporting the team's decisions and resolving the team's issues.
C. Supporting the team's decisions and resolving the team's issues.
What is a Sprint?

A. A brainstorming session in Extreme programming to generate design ideas.

B. A race between two developers to see who can complete a feature fastest.

C. One iteration in the Scrum methodology.

D. The last iteration in the Scrum project, when the team works long hours to finish the project.
C. One iteration in the Scrum methodology.
What is meant by the velocity of the team?

A. The rate a team puts in a normal work day.

B. The rate at which features are released to the customer.

C. The rate at which the team completes the work.

D. The rate at which the team renews itself.
C. The rate at which the team completes the work.
Which Scrum ritual is meant to look back and improve upon the finished Sprint?

A. Daily Scrum.
B. Sprint Retrospective.
C. Sprint Review.
B. Sprint Retrospective.
A team is estimating story points. They estimate that the story falls between a large (13) and a medium (5) and they assign a story point of 8.

What is this technique
called?

A. Affinity estimation
B. Fibonacci estimation
C. Triangulation
C. Triangulation
Sprint planning should result in a commitment on what will be delivered at the end
of the Sprint.

Who makes this commitment?

A. The Product Owner
B. The Scrum Master
C. The team
C. The team
What is Agile?
A group of frameworks used for the development and management of initiatives.
The team determines that it has over-committed itself for a Sprint.

Who should be present when reviewing and adjusting the Sprint work?

A. The team, the Scrum Master and the Product Owner. The Stakeholders should be consulted.

B. The team and the Scrum Master. The Product Owner should be consulted.

C. The team only. The Product Owner should be consulted.
C. The team only. The Product Owner should be consulted.
A team is trying to convince a customer about the value of adopting Scrum. The customer like. some of the features of the methodology like the bi-weekly demonstration, but the customer remains largely unconvinced of the value of Scrum and refuses to change the way of working, What should the team do?

A. Let the Scrum Master 'translate' to Waterfall practices.

B. Use Scrum and convince the customer during the process.

C. Do not follow Scrum until the customer is convinced of the value.
C. Do not follow Scrum until the customer is convinced of the value.
Who is the owner of a Sprint Backlog Item during the Sprint Planning meeting?

A. The entire team owns all Sprint Backlog Items.

B. The Product Owner owns all Sprint Backlog Items.

C. The team member working on the item owns that item.
A. The entire team owns all Sprint Backlog Items.
Which of the following statements best expresses the role that the daily stand-up meeting plays
in the monitoring of a Scrum project?

A. The stand-up meeting helps the Scrum Master to update the burn-down chart.

B. The stand-up meeting gives the team insight into their progress and their issues.

C. The stand-up meeting lets the Product Owner review the progress of the team.
B. The stand-up meeting gives the team insight into their progress and their issues.
From which sport is the term "Scrum" and much of the terminology derived?

A. Kick boxing
B. Polo
C. Rugby
D. Soccer
C. Rugby
A team estimates a Story using the Planning Poker technique. The team decides to allocate five Story points to the Story, because the Developers estimated two points and the Testers estimated three points.

Which statement is true regarding this scenario?

A. Points are assigned by the Scrum Master, not by the team.

B. Points are assigned for the overall Story, not for parts of the Story.

C. Points are never estimated, but always determined beforehand.

D. The team forgets to ask the Product Owner about the estimate.
B. Points are assigned for the overall Story, not for parts of the Story.
A story was estimated at eight ideal hours. A working day is eight hours. Developers can get
about six hours of work done on a daily basis.

What is the elapsed time required to complete the story?

A. 1.25 days
B. 1.33 days
C. 2 days
D. This cannot be determined without knowing the velocity.
B. 1.33 days
Who knows most about the progress towards a business objective or a release?

A. The Product Owner
B. The Scrum Master
C. The team
A. The Product Owner
What is an information radiator?

A. A physical display for the team that gives information about the current status.

B. A tool that automatically sends relevant information to the Product Owner.

C. A status report or dashboard that is maintained by the Scrum Master.
A. A physical display for the team that gives information about the current status.
What is the usual length of the time box for the complete Sprint Planning meeting?

A. Four hours for a 30 day Sprint, one to two hours for a shorter Sprint.

B. However long it takes to complete the Sprint Backlog.

C. Never more than two hours, regardless of Sprint length.
A. Four hours for a 30 day Sprint, one to two hours for a shorter Sprint.
The Product Owner is going on a three-week vacation. The team should be closing the current Sprint and starting a new Sprint at the end of the first week of the Product Owner's vacation.

What is the best way to continue the Scrum rituals in this situation?

A. Each Scrum team should ideally have two Product Owners to provide cover.

B. The Product Owner should be requested to delay his vacation by a week.

C. The Scrum Master should take over and cover for the Product Owner.
C. The Scrum Master should take over and cover for the Product Owner.
Near the end of a Sprint, the team realizes that they will not be able to complete the stories they had committed to.

What is the best course of action for the team?

A. Add resources and team members to meet the goals of the current Sprint.

B. Ask the Product Owner to decide which stories can be delayed until the next Sprint.

C. Decide on a new definition of 'done' for the Sprint Backlog Items.
B. Ask the Product Owner to decide which stories can be delayed until the next Sprint.
What is the characteristic of defining everything upfront and trying to stick to it?
Predictive
What is the Agile Manifesto?
A signed statement of values for Agile projects that was formalized by a group in 2001.
What is an Escaped Defect?
A defect that is not detected by the development team and is found by the end users after a release.
What is a Spike?
A story that cannot be estimated until a development team runs a timeboxed investigation.
What are the 2 types of Spikes?
1. Technical Spikes
2. Functional Spikes
What is the MoSCoW Prioritization?
A prioritization technique used to reach a common understanding with stakeholders on the importance they place on the delivery of each requirement.
What is Succession Planning?
Succession planning is about keeping the information inside the team, instead of certain individuals, and makes it possible to switch responsibilities, or even add or remove developers in extreme cases.
What is a Timebox?
A predefined maximum duration of time.

(All Scrum events must be timeboxed).
What is an Increment?
A sum of all completed Product Backlog items at the end of a Sprint. They are potentially releasable.
What are Epic User Stories?
User stories that are too big are called epic user stories. It is normal to have epic user stories at the bottom of the Product Backlog. When the time comes, we should spend time grooming these items by turning them into multiple smaller, yet independent user stories.
What are Themes?
Groups of related items that create a capability in the solution.
What is a Story Point?
The effort required to put a PBI (Product Backlog Item) live.
What is Code Coverage?
The percentage of code involved in the tests. With higher code coverage, it is easier to rely on the code.
How long should it take a five member Scrum team to finalize the Sprint plan for a
three week Sprint?

A. One to three hours
B. Three to six hours
C. Six to twelve hours
D. Fifteen hours
B. Sprint planning should ideally take one to two hours per week of Sprint
duration.
What is the best way to improve communications in a distributed Scrum team?

A. Appointing a single point of contact for communication across locations

B. Co-locating the entire team for a release planning session

C. Establish a clear audit trail for all communication on the project

D. Introduce additional sign-offs on the project to ensure oversight.
B. The team getting together for a release planning offers the most value - it
provides face time between the team members, an opportunity to establish rapport and
team building, and clarification of expectations and requirements up-front.
What does the W stand for in the MoSCoW prioritization framework?

A. Whether
B. Wish
C. Won't
D. Would
C. MoSCoW: Must, Should, Could and Won't.
What is the best time to refactor code on a project?

A. Continuously and at the earliest possible opportunity

B. During hardening iterations

C. During the last iteration

D. When the Product Owner decides to schedule it
A. Continuous refactoring - to always refactor code while changing it - is the
best practice.
In the past eight Sprints, the team has completed 85 story points worth of work
altogether. The team has been asked to start working on a new project which is
estimated at 64 story points.

How many Sprints would be needed to complete this project?
A. Five
B. Seven
C. Eight
D. Ten
B. The velocity of the team is 85/8. The number of Sprints required to complete the project is 64/velocity, which works out to be slightly above six. Hence
seven is the most reasonable answer.
Who should update the work estimates during the Sprint?

A. Only the team members
B. The Project Manager
C. The Product Owner
A. Only the team members
Which means of communication is the most preferable to clarify the interpretation of a
requirement?

A. E-mail
B. Face-to-face
C. Instant messaging
D. Telephone
B. Face-to-face
In a Scrum project, when would a requirement get added to the Product backlog?

A. When it is developed, but cannot yet be released.

B. When the team works on it for a particular release.

C. When the customer requests a new requirement.
C. When the customer requests a new requirement.
Under what circumstances would a team use Affinity Estimation Technique instead of
Planning Poker?

A. If more details are needed during Sprint Planning

B. If there is a large number of stories to estimate

C. If there is a small number of stories to estimate
B. If there is a large number of stories to estimate
What is the objective of the Scrum-of-Scrums meeting?
A. To inform management about the progress of the project.

B. Bring together all team members of all teams.

C. Coordinate the work of multiple Scrum teams.

D. Kick-off an international Scrum project.
C. Coordinate the work of multiple Scrum teams.
During a Sprint, the team completes four stories with story points 3, 5, 8 and 2 respectively.

They further complete half a story with a story point of 13.

What is the velocity of the team?

A. 18
B. 24.5
C. 31
A. 18
Which statement describes Release Planning?

A. After looking at all the stories in the backlog, the team estimates their effort in detail.

B. The team meets with the customer to negotiate the scope, cost and time of the release.

C. The team and the Product Owner agree on an initial plan for the delivery of features.
C. The team and the Product Owner agree on an initial plan for the delivery of features.
How does Agile bring predictability to the Planning process?

A. By allowing the customers to review the progress often.

B. By assigning most of the responsibility to the Product Owner.

C. By making the team self-organized and self-planning.

D. By providing early visibility into the team's progress.
D. By providing early visibility into the team's progress.
During the release planning meeting, it is difficult to agree on priorities.

Sales want to implement some new features to catch up with the competitors.

Marketing want to work on a mobile interface that can prove to be a competitive
differentiator.

Customer support want better logging and auditing capabilities to improve maintainability.

What should be done to set the priorities?

A. Approach Senior Management and ask for priorities.

B. Survey the existing customers and prioritize according to their views.

C. The Product Owner will set the priorities.
C. The Product Owner will set the priorities
Why are estimates expressed in terms of story points difficult to explain outside of the team?

A. It requires a comparison to a benchmark, which typically varies from team to team.

B. It requires a deeper understanding of the technical approach to implement each story.

C. It requires breaking the stories down into Sprint Backlog Items, which only the team can
do.
A. It requires a comparison to a benchmark, which typically varies from team to team.
What is the expected outcome of the first Sprint on a project?

A. A few working, tested features from the Product Backlog

B. Architecture and high-level design of the Product

C. Assignment of the team, Product Owner and Scrum Master

D. A well-defined release plan for the Product
A. A few working, tested features from the Product Backlog
What is the relationship between the Product Backlog, the Release Backlog and the Sprint
Backlog?

A. The Product Backlog is a subset of the Sprint Backlog, which is a subset of the Release
Backlog.

B. The Release Backlog is a subset of the Product Backlog, which is a subset of the Sprint
Backlog

C. The Sprint Backlog is a subset of the Product Backlog, which is a subset of the Release
Backlog
C. The Sprint Backlog is a subset of the Product Backlog, which is a subset of the Release
Backlog
An engineering organization is transforming their project management method to use Agile Scrum.

What is the best approach to the transformation?

A. Get a senior executive to champion the transformation.

B. Get the team managers to monitor their team's progress on a daily basis.

C. Make a swift transition and start using Scrum for all projects.
A. Get a senior executive to champion the transformation.
What should the Scrum Master advise the team to give their main focus, while working in a
global distributed team?

A. Favor conference calls and video chats in order to save on travel budget.

B. Place greater emphasis on team-building activities and cultural sensitivities.

C. Provide at least four hours of overlap time by changing working hours.
B. Place greater emphasis on team-building activities and cultural sensitivities.
When is a Sprint complete?

A. When all of the Product Backlog items are completed.

B. When all the tasks in the Sprint Backlog are completed.

C. When the Sprint defined time box ends.
C. When the Sprint defined time box ends.
A Manager requests to attend the daily stand-up meeting so that he can be more responsive
to the team by being aware of the team's progress and issues.
As the Scrum Master, what should you do?

A. Allow the Product Owner to participate in 'listen only' mode.

B. Allow the Product Owner to participate like any other team member.

C. Turn down the request as the daily stand-up is only for the team.
A. Allow the Product Owner to participate in 'listen only' mode.
What is the best way to split up teams on a large project which is implemented using Scrum?

A. Group by domain expertise.

B. Group by features being developed,

C. Group by specialty of the team members.
B. Group by features being developed
For a Sprint, progress is monitored in a burn-up chart with bars.
What makes the bar become longer?

A. The progression of time.

B. Work is added to the Sprint Backlog.

C. Work is deleted from the Sprint Backlog.
C. Work is deleted from the Sprint Backlog
Why is planning poker an effective estimation technique?

A. It generates a lot of useful discussion and gets team buy-in.

B. It results in lower estimates as team members will estimate individually.

C. It triggers a more detailed and task oriented break-up of the story.
A. It generates a lot of useful discussion and gets team buy-in
What is Test Driven Development?
The practice in which test scenarios are prepared before the program is written. So, the goal for the programmer is to write something that can pass the exact test.
What is Continuous Integration?
All programmers are required to upload their latest versions of code into the repository every hour or so.
What is Continuous Refactoring?
Refactoring is the improvement of code without changing its external functions.
Continuous refactoring is spending some of the development time on refactoring to facilitate the future development and maintainability.
What is Collective Code Ownership?
No one in the Agile team owns a piece of code; everyone is accountable for everything, and everyone is allowed to change any piece of code.
List the Agile Manifesto
Individuals and interactions Over processes and tools

Working software Over comprehensive documentation

Customer collaboration Over contract negotiation

Responding to change Over following a plan
What is the Product Backlog?
A prioritized list of items (usually user stories) that the client expects from the project;
What are Ideal Days?
Estimating the amount of time required for each user story in an ideal situation.
What is a Kanban board?
A work and workflow visualization tool that enables you to optimize the flow of your work by using stick notes and a board.
What is Time & means or fixed unit?
The preferred type of contract, which is compatible with the adaptive nature of the project.

In this case we can either charge the customer based on man-hours, or per Sprint (based on a fixed team composition and duration for the Sprints of course)
What is the Crystal Clear method?
A methodology that focuses more on people, interaction, community, skills, talents, and communications in the first place, rather than processes.
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