A person, or anything presented as a person, e. g., a spirit, object, animal, or natural force, in a literary work. There are a variety of character types, including main characters, minor characters, static/flat characters (those who remain the same as the plot unfolds), dynamic/round characters (those who undergo change as the plot unfolds). A special kind of contrast between appearance and reality—usually one in which reality is the opposite from what it seems. There are four major types of irony:
1. Verbal Irony: when someone knowingly exaggerates or says one thing and means another. In speech, tone of voice makes ironic intent obvious: "That's just w onderful !" can clearly mean "That is terrible!" In Julius Caesar , Antony calls Brutus "honorable" but knows he is not honorable. Sarcasm is verbal irony that is harsh and heavy-handed rather than clever and incisive.
2. Situational Irony: defies logical cause/effect relationships and justifiable expectations. For example, if a greedy millionaire were to buy a lottery ticket and win additional millions, the irony would be situational because such a circumstance cannot be explained logically. Such a circumstance seems "unfair." This sense of being "unfair" or "unfortunate" is a trademark of situational irony. Another example of situational irony is if a fireman's house burns down.
3. Cosmic Irony (or Irony of Fate): Some irony goes beyond being unfair and is morally tragic. Such irony is often so severe that it causes people to question God and see the universe as hostile. For example, if an honest, hardworking, and generous person buys a lottery ticket and wins ten million dollars, only to die in an auto crash two days later, the irony would reach tragic proportions. When situational irony reaches this scale, it is often called cosmic irony or irony of fate. Such irony typically suggests that people are pawns to malicious forces.
4. Dramatic Irony: created by the audience's/reader's awareness of something that a character does not know.
The vantage point, or stance, from which a story is told, the eye and mind through which the action is perceived and filtered. Sometimes called narrative perspective. There are two general narrative points of view: first person ( I ) and third person ( he, she, they ). The most common third-person POV is omniscient POV, in which the narrator, standing outside the story, assumes a godlike persona, moving about freely in time and space, revealing the thoughts and motives of all the characters. There is also the third-person limited omniscient POV, in which the narrator focuses on the thoughts of a single character while presenting the other characters only externally. A literary technique in which ideas, customs, vices, habits or shortcomings are ridiculed, often for the purpose of improving society. Satire may be gently witty, mildly abrasive, or bitterly critical. Devices used by satirists include irony, understatement, sarcasm, innuendo, burlesque, parody and caricature. A writer's characteristic way of saying things. Style includes (but is not limited to) arrangement of ideas, word choice, imagery, sentence structure and variety, use of figurative language, rhythm, repetition, coherence, emphasis, unity and tone. Think of style as not what is said, but HOW it is said. Remember that style can also help to convey meaning—the two are inextricably linked. The analysis and assessment of style involves examination of a writer's choice of words, his figures of speech, the devices, the shape of his sentences, the shape of his paragraphs—indeed, of every conceivable aspect of his language and the way in which he uses it. In literature, the central or dominating idea, the "message" implicit in the work. The theme of a work is usually an abstract concept indirectly expressed through recurrent images, actions, characters, and symbols, and must be inferred by the reader or spectator. Theme differs from subject (the topic or thing described in a work) in that theme is a comment, observation, or insight about the subject. For example, the subject of a poem may be a flower; its thematic statement, a comment on the fleeting nature of existence. The reflection in a work of the author's attitude toward his or her subject, characters, and readers. Tone in writing is comparable to tone in speech and may be described as brusque, friendly, imperious, insinuating, teasing, and so on. The tone of a literary work may be one of anger or approval, pride or piety. Unlike mood, which is intended to shape the reader's emotional response, tone reflects the feelings of the writer.