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Mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual almost imperceptible changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of

continuity or stages

Psychologists who view the developmental process as a sequence of distinct generally believe that ___ is the same of everyone

the order but not the timing

Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child

develops through a series of stages.

Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ____ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to _______.

Assimilation / accommodation

Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him. Nageeb's altered conception of a nurse illustrates the process of


When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget's _____ stage


Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia's into six pieces. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn't understand the conservation of ____


According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the _______ stage is to the ______ stage.

preoperational; concrete operational

Gretchen watches as her preschooler teacher forms two identical balls of modeling clay. The teacher gives one of the balls of modeling clay to Gretchen, and then squashes the remaining ball into a flat pancake. She asks Gretchen if they both have the same amount of clay, and Gretchen confidently states that the teacher has more because the pancakes is bigger than the ball. Gretchen's answer illustrates the flaw in thinking that Piaget labeled


Four-year-olds are not completely egocentric and 5-year-olds can exhibit some understanding of conservation. This indicates that Piaget may have underestimated the

role of formal logic

During adolescence, maturation of the ___ lags behind maturation of the ___

frontal lobe; emotional limbic system

The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ___ stage of development

Formal operations

Byron is planning to ask his parents if he can borrow their car on Friday night. He is thinking about all the possible reasons they might bring up for not letting him use the car, and thinking of a logical reply to each of these possible objects. Based on Piaget's model of cognitive development, Byron's thought processes illustrate ___

Abstract thought

Edwin has just started his third year in University, and he is still exploring the options for his major. He has taken a number of courses with the intention of obtaining a law degree, but last semester he also discovered he is very interested in geology. He feels it is important to reach a final decision before the end of the semester, and he has started investigating both career options in great detail. According to James Marcia, Edwin would be considered to be in a state of identity ___


Abner, a 70-year-old retired teacher, feels that his life has not been of any real value or significance. According to Erickson, Abner has failed to achieve a sense of ___


Darrel was dancing with his new girlfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing "Can't help falling in love with you" his girlfriend gave him a long passionate kiss, which Darrel found very enjoyable. Now Darrel finds that every time he hears the song on the radio, he becomes mildly excited. In this example, the long, passionate kiss is the ___

conditioned stimulus

Simon cringes everytime he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, cringing in the waiting room is the ___

conditioned response

Carly used to be afraid of visits to her family doctor because she associated the sight of his waiting room with the pain of having a blood sample drawn. However, Carly's new doctor's lab worker is "painless", and the sight of the waiting room is no longer associated with pain. Consequently, Carly finds her fear of visits to the family doctor has disappeared. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as ___


When Lindsay was nine years old, the neighbor's Chihuahua bit her on the ankle. Today Lindsay is still terrified of Chihuahuas, but she likes almost all other types of dogs. Lindsay's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of ____


When resitance to extinction is high, it means that ___

response will continue after reinforcement is stopped

Julie has a desk right next to her manager's office. Whenever her manager is in his office, Julie makes sure that she works hard at her computer. However, if the manager is away from his office she often works much more slowly and takes more breaks. In this case, the manger being in his office is acting as an ___

unconditioned stimulus

Shaquille is a professional basketball player. He never knows for sure which of his shots will result in a basket, but the more shots he takes the more baskets he makes. In this example, Shaquille's shooting is being reinforced on

a variable-ratio schedule

A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ___; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for

positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement

The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that

punishment weakens behavior, while negative reinforcement strengthens behavior

the experience Sligman had with sauce bearnaise was unique in that

a conditioned response was established even though there was a long delay between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditoned stimulus

After watching his father wash the car, five-year-old Bob washes his bike. This is an example of


The learning theory that is best able to explain why physical punishment leads to aggressive behavior in children is ___

observational learning; modelling

Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother did. This illustrates the importance of ___


Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to ___

observational learning

Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commites

seemingly justified, realistic violence

Two students took a memory test. Twenty nouns were shown sequentially on a TV monitor. Mallory tried to think of rhymes for each word as it appeared on the monitor. Bailey tried to think of ways each word could be used in a sentence. Based on Craik and Lockhart's levels-of-processing theory, you should predict that ____

Bailey will recall more words because she used semantic encoding

A 1-800 number for a product Ronald was interested in flashed on the television screen. Unfortunately the number disappeared before Ronald was able to write down the last three digits. However, Ronald found he had a momentary mental image of the phone number, and he was able to complete it, even the number had disappeared. Ronald's experience best illustrates

serial position effect

You are absorbed in reading your psychology text when the phone rings. After talking on the phone, you can't remember the last thing you read. this information was lost from ___, because the phone conversation distracted you from ____ the information


Which of the following statements regarding the role of context in memory is MOST accurate?

Context cues often facilitate the retrieval of information

The work of researchers like Bartlett and Loftus on errors in memory suggest that memory is best viewed as

Reconstruction of events or materials

LeAnn had her purse snatched as she walked out to her ca. The police who are investigating the crime ask LeAnn to try to pick the purse-snatcher out of a line-up of eight suspects. The police are basically using

a recognition task

In studies of long-term memory, researchers have found that

the passage of time is not as influential as what occurs during the time interval

Brendan knows that her professor plans to give essay exams throughout the semester, so she prepares for the exams by thinking of questions that ask about key concepts and writing out answers to those questions. In this case, Brendan is trying to maximize her exam performance


Which of the following statements best reflects the current view of the repressed memories controversy

We should be careful about accepting recovered memories of abuse in absence of convincing corroboration

DAve is reminiscing about the first car he owned in high school and how he felt the first time he drove it though town. this is an example of


According to the serial-position effect, subjects tend to show better recall for items ___ of a list than for items ___

beginning and end; middle

Loftus and Palmer asked two groups of observers how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who hear the vividly descriptive word "smashed" in relation to the accident later recalled ___

broken glass at the scene of the accident

The fact that in studies people who sleep after learning a list of words recall more words than people who stay awake provides evidence that forgetting may involve ____


Forming many associations between new course material and what you already know is an effective way to build a network of

retrieval cues

When Quentin sprained his ankle in a backyard softball game, his girlfriend grabbed a bag of frozen corn form the freezer to wrap around his ankle until they got him to the local clinic. In this case, Quentin's girlfriend.


Eva just upgraded her software package. However, even though the updated version contains a number of more efficient methods for working with files, Eva continues to work with files the way she did before the upgrade. In this case, Eva is showing evidence of

mental set

Lance is trying to solve a complex anagram puzzle. He systematically tries every potential solution by testing each possible combination of the letters provided. In this case, Lance is ___

using an algorithm

Diagrams sometimes facilitate problem-solving because they ____

change the representation of the problem

You can't think of a single instance when Cathy helped you out, and so you decide that Cathy must be an ungenerous person. Your judgment is based on

availability heuristics

Elia is entering survey data from adult males in a research study. One respondent has listed his height as 6 feet 5 inches, but the occupation is hard to decipher. Elisa thinks it might be a basketball player or a bank president. She decides to enter basketball player as the occupation. In this case, Elisa

probably relied on representative heuristic

When we say that language is generative, we mean that

a limited number of symbols can be combined in an infinite variety of ways to generate an endless array of novel messages.

Dr. Grath believes that both an innate predisposition and a supportive environment contribute to language development. Dr. Grath's views are most consistence with those of


Imagine that anthropologists found a culture that had over 80 different words for rice. If researchers also found that the people in this culture thought about rice in different and more elaborate ways than people who have only one word for rice, it would


B.F. Skinner emphasized the importance of ____ in language acquisistion


Noam Chomsky has emphasized that the acquisition of language by children is facilitated by

in born readiness to learn grammatical rules

Contemporary psychologists are most likely to criticize Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis for

underestimating the extend to which thinking occurs in language

Brenna took a test designed to measure her creativity. She tells you that her final score on the test was 70. She knows you are taking a psychology class, so she asks you what this score means. You should tell Brenna ___

you can't interpret it without knowing the norms

Silas took the College Aptitude Test (CAT) when he was a junior in high school, and he attained a very high score on the test. When Silas was in college, hew as suspended his first year and when he was readmitted, he ended up dropping out because he was doing poorly in all his classes. When Silas went for career counseling, he retook the CAT, and again he earned a very high score. Based on Sila's experience, you might conclude that the CAT has a ___

high reliability; low variability

Monica recently completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and was told that her deviation IQ score fell at the 50th percentile. This mieans that

her IQ was lower than the average person.

The fact that the correlation in IQ scores between identical twins reared apart is lower than that between identical twins reared together suggests that

environmental factors can have a role on intellectual development

Saying that the heritablity of intelligence is 70 percent would mean that

heritage accounts for 70% of intelligence variation in the number of people studied.

Kai has been raised in an intellectually impoverished environment, with no access to book and very few age-appropriate toys. The reaction range model suggests that Kai will

emerge intellectually deprived

Noel is ectremely talented in mathematics and scienve, he has received numerous scholarships based on his abilities in the areas. However, he just can't seem to catch on in his English classes, no matter how many he takes. Noel is repeating remeidal English for the foursth time, and he is still struggling. The theory of intelligence that would have the most difficulty explaining Noel's different levels of performance is ___


Cheryl has always performed well on conventional tests designed to measure reasoning and logical-mathematical abilities, but she doesn't seem to be able to use her skills to solve common everyday problems. According to Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, Cheryl shows

low practical intelligence

Counselor Troi is from the planet Beta-Z. Betazoids are empaths who have the ability to easily infer other people's moods, temperaments, emotions, and intentions. According to Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence's, Counselor Troi should score high in

interpersonal intelligence

For Susan, smoking cigarettes reduces feelings of tension and anxiety. Because of her heavy smoking, however, she has a bad morning cough and breathing difficulties. How can the principles of operant conditioning help to explain the development and continuation of Susan's self-defeating smoking habit? Explain the extent to which reinforcements and punishments for Susan's habit are positive or negative, immediate or delayed, partial (intermittent) or continuous.

Negative reinforcement - removal of tension and anxiety
Positive reinforcement - addition of "buzz"; please and concentration

both are immediate reinforcers

both are continuous

Alicia has to study several chapters for her anatomy midterm. Describe how she could use some of the basic principles of memory and thinking/problem-solving to help her learn and remember the information

Being able to retrieve information from long term memory grows through rehearsal

The spacing effect shows that distributing studying over a long period of times improves long term retention

Finding a way to make associations with the material and something that will be present during the test will strengthen retrieval cues. It is best to make these associates while encoding memory

Effortfull processing encourages memories to form

using an algorithmic thought process is most complex but also most successful than heuristic thought, so use that most often

you will be able to recall information best when it has been semantically encoded

A classmate makes the following claim: "despite numerous federally funded Head Start programs and nationwide efforts to desegregate public schools, blacks continue to lag behind their white counterparts in intelligence and academic achievement. Clearly, black Americans must be genetically inferior to white Americans. Use Research evidence and logical arguments to intelligently refute your classmate's statement.

Infants of black and white descent score equally as well on infant intelligence measures

Intelligence is partially genetic but largely environmental

Studies shoe what adoption enhances the intelligence scores of mistreated children

Genetic's research reveals that, under the skin, the races are remarkably a like.

correlation does not imply causation

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