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AP Psychology Unit 1 & 2 FRQ ?'S
Terms in this set (17)
The following data set includes information from survey research in a psychology course regarding how many hours each individual in the class spent preparing for the exam.
Student Amount of hours reported studying
Examine the data and responded to the following:
What is the middle score in this distribution? What term is used to describe the middle score?
What would be the most useful statistic for measuring the variation of the hours spent studying? Why is this statistic a better measure of the variation than the range?
the middle score is eight, and it is called the median. the most useful statistic for measuring variation is the standard deviation.the standard deviation is a better measure of variation than the range because it considers all scores rather than just the two most extreme scores
The definition of psychology changed as the field evolved during the early years. Why did John B. Watson object to the definitions preferred by Wundt, Titchener, and James? What group of psychologists did Watson's idea influence? How did Watson redefine psychology?
• Watson objected to the "science of mental life" because he felt it was impossible to be scientific without observation.
• Watson's ideas influenced the behaviorists.
• Watson preferred limiting psychology to behavior, because behavior could be observed and scientifically analyzed.
Identify the founder of structuralism, and explain structuralism's four foundational concepts.
Edward Titchener (1) attempted to discover the structural elements of the mind (2) by using a process called introspection. (3) Individuals reported elements of their experiences when presented with specific objects. (4) It was an attempt to gain an insider's perspective into the minds of others. (5) He wanted to predict individual responses to those objects or experiences to which participants had earlier replied.
Naturalistic observation is a research method used by psychologists to investigate human and animal behavior. Identify three weaknesses of this type of study.
Naturalistic observation is a valid research method, but it is not without its flaws. One flaw is that without various groups (control and experimental), it is hard to determine cause and effect. A second flaw of naturalistic observation is that it is hard to make sure that the researcher does not accidentally influence the results, as it is hard for people not to notice when they are being observed. A third disadvantage is that since naturalistic observation lacks clear-cut lines, different researchers/observers can get different results.
Kate is said to have an "easy-going" personality. How migh the biopsychosocial approach be used to explain an easy-going personality?
Biological factors would include her genetic,
physiological, and chemical makeup. Kate's easy-going manner may be the result of brain chemistry. Psychological factors would include a discussion of how she learned that an easy-going personality makes people want to spend time with him. In response, she keeps anxiety and negative feelings to herself. SHe has the perception that others do not want to deal with her stress and anxiety. Social-cultural factors would include Kate's family or cultural upbringing and expectations. If those who surround Kate expect her to be relaxed and laid-back, and this is what is supported in her community, Kate will be likely to act accordingly.
Six months ago, Carlos emigrated from Spain to the
United States. Although fl uent in English and an honor
student in Spain, Carlos has had diffi culty completing
his assignments since moving to the United States. His
parents don't understand why he is not succeeding like
he did in his last school. Carlos has quit participating in
Explain how each of the following psychological
perspectives might explain Carlos' behavior:
:The psychodynamic perspective
emphasizes unconscious drives
and past experiences. Carlos may have
some repressed memories from Spain
that are not allowing him to fi t in and
be as successful as he was. The cognitive perspective emphasizes how we use information
that aff ects our thinking to solve problems.
Carlos thinks that if he cannot be as successful at school as he once was, then maybe his family customs are not as important as well. Thus, he shows little interest in all aspects of his life, school, and family
Debbie, a high school junior, has been struggling
recently in many areas of her life. She is overweight and
spends several hours a day watching television. She
is having trouble keeping up in her classes and says
she cannot seem to keep her focus. She also is having
trouble making friends and "fi tting in" at school.
Explain how the following applied psychologists
might attempt to help Debbies current situation.
• Health psychologists
• Social psychologists
• Counseling psychologists
A school psychologist might work with Debbie's
parents, teachers, and counselors to determine why she is struggling in her classes and make recommendations for improving her classroom performance. A counseling psychologist might work with Debbie to find out why she has recently found numerous aspects of her life more challenging and might work on strategies for helping Debbie cope with challenging situations, such as how to make friends. A school psychologist might work with Debbie's parents, teachers, and counselors to determine why she is struggling in her classes and make recommendations for improving her classroom performance. A counseling psychologist might work with Debbie to find out why she has recently found numerous aspects of her life more challenging and might work on strategies for helping Debbie cope with challenging situations, such as how to make friends.
Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans in 2005, causing a
staggering loss of life and cultural heritage and billions
of dollars in damage. How might each of the following
have contributed to making life better in New Orleans
following the hurricane?
• Clinical psychologists
• Social psychologists
Clinical psychologists would help those with adjustment difficulties and help people cope with their losses. Social psychologists might focus on how the people of New Orleans' beliefs, feelings, and behaviors have been affected by the tragedy.
A teacher wants to know if nightmares are more common than dreams. He asks volunteers from his second-period class to report how many dreams they had last week. He asks volunteers from his third-period class to report the number of nightmares they had last week. Describe two things wrong with the design of this study.
There is no hypothesis stated. In asking for volunteers, the teacher is taking a nonrandom sample that is probably not representative of the population of interest. Neither dreams nor nightmares are operationally defined, so they might be interpreted differently by later researchers. The research is not blind. The teacher could influence the results by the way he asked questions.
Students with higher scores on anxiety scales were found to have lower scores on standardized tests. What research method would show this relationship? Why can no cause-effect conclusion be drawn from the results?
This research method is a correlation study. There are three possibilities for causation: Anxiety could cause low test scores, low test scores could cause anxiety, or a third factor could cause both anxiety and low test scores. No conclusions can be drawn about causation because this is not an experiment.
Mr.Clink wants to determine if the new review activity he developed will improve student performance on unit exams. He randomly separates 160 students into two groups. Group A reviews for the unit exam in the traditional manner they have always used. Group B participates in the new review activity. After reviewing, both groups are given the same unit exam and their scores are compared identify the independent and dependent variables for this experiment
IV: Students given the new review activity
DV: Exam scores
Explain the difference b/w descriptive and inferential statistics in research.
- Descriptive statistics organize and summarize the data collected during research.
- Inferential statistics are used to help determine whether results can be generalized to a larger population through the calculation of statistical significance
Provide 3 reasons why nonhuman animals are sometimes used in psychological research.
Learn facts about animal species
Find ways to solve human problems
Study issues that can't be studied using human subjects for practical or ethical reasons
Researchers interested in studying stress gave 150 high school seniors a very difficult math exam. After the test, the researchers measured stress by examining physiological changes with extensive medical testing that included drawing blood samples.
•What ethical principle governs what students must be told before the research takes place? What should the potential participants be told?
•What ethical principle governs the appropriate use of the results of the medical testing? What would that principle say about the use of these results?
Informed consent governs what students must told, it is that the participants can be decieved to an extent but what they are told must be close enough to the actual study for it to really be informed consent. The ethical principle that governs the appropriate use of medical testing is anonymity or confidentiality, the principle says that if the results are revealed the participants' identities must be hidden and not released also unless they give their consent.
John noticed an ad for an internet dating service that claimed more people who used its service are in long-term relationships than people who didn't. John, a good critical thinker, knows that this isn't enough to claim that the service causes people to find long term love and wants to create an experiment to investigate. Use the following terms to describe an experiment that would support or dispute the ad's claim.
- Random Sample
- Random Assignment
- Operational Definitions
- Independent Variable
- Dependent Variable
- Inferential Statistics
A hypothesis would be that more ppl who use for example x dating site are in
Dr. Jarosz wanted to investigate the relationship between sleep and levels of alertness during a class for American university students. She gave surveys to 150 college freshmen in her introduction to psychology course, asking them to report how many hours they slept each night during a two-week period. Dr. Jarosz also had the participants rate their level of alertness on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the most alert each day at the end of class. Dr. Jarosz compared the average amount of sleep reported by each participant along with their average score on the alertness scale on a graph to examine the data. The resulting correlation coefficient for Dr. Jarosz's data was +0.89.
Define each of the following terms and explain how each concept might apply to Dr.Jarosz's research.
• Random sample
• Wording effects
• Positive correlation
• Operational definition
A random sample is the method of sampling in which a researcher chooses participants from a population and everyone in that population has an equal chance of being selected so the research can be generalized. A scatterplot is a graph in which the values of two variables are plotted along two axes, the pattern of the resulting points revealing any correlation present. Wording effect describes the possible effects on participants caused by the order of presented words or even the choice of the words themselves.
Find at least five problems in the research study described below. Identify the problem and explain how it
is a violation of accepted research principles. Dr. Monheim wanted to study whether vitamin C affects self-esteem. She recruited 200 respondents who arrived at her lab. Participants were told that they were about
to participate in a harmless research study, and they needed to sign a release form in case there were harmful
side effects from the vitamin C pills. The 100 participants on the right side of the room received a pill with vitamin C and the others on the left received a pill with caffeine. She then gave each group a list of questions to answer in essay form about their self-esteem. When they were finished, she thanked the participants and sent them on their way. After compiling her findings, Dr. Monheim printed the names of the students and their results in the campus newspaper so they would know what the results of the test were. Dr. Monheim concluded that vitamin C had a positive affect on self-esteem.
She ignored the confidentiality standard by revealing the participants' names, thus violating accepted research principles. Five problems with this study are that there is no random assignment, no random sampling, there could have been experimenter bias since she gave the directions and handed out the essays, she did not debrief the participants, and the participants could have given answers that reflect well upon them an example of social desirability.