Scientific Method
A method of learning about the world through the application of critical thinking and tools
Confirmation Bias
A tendency to search for information that confirms preconceptions.
Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without manipulating or controlling the situation.
Correlation Study
A research project strategy that investigates the degree to which two variables are related to each other.
Positive Correlation
As the value of one variable increases (or decreases) so does the value of the other variable.
Negative Correlation
As the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases.
Zero Correlation
There is no relationship whatsoever between the two variables.
Survey Method
A research technique that questions a sample of people to collect information about their attitudes or behaviors.
Random Sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included.
Longitudinal Study
A research technique that follows the same group of individuals over a long period.
Cross-Sectional Study
A research technique that compares individuals from different age groups at one time.
Independent Variable
The variable that the researcher will actively manipulate
Dependent Variable
The variable that should show the effect of the independent variable.
Experimental Group
The participants in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable.
Confounding Variables
In an experiment, a variable other than the independent variable, that could produce a change in the dependent variable.
Blind procedure
An experimental procedure where the research participants are ignorant (blind) to the purpose or expected outcome of the experiment.
Double Blind Procedure
A research procedure in which both the data collectors and the research participants do not know the expected outcome of the experiment.
A inactive substance or condition administered used to control for confounding variables.
Statistically Significant
Must be at least 95% certain the differences between the groups is due to the independent variable
To repeat the essence of a research study to see whether the results can be reliably reproduced.