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a group of works that has a subject and its predicate, and makes a complete thought


an incomplete thought


the noun or subect pronoun that the sentence is about


the simple predicate is the verb

direct object

the noun or object pronoun that receives the action of the action verb

indirect object

the noun or object pronoun between the action verb and the direct object, that is indirectly affected by the action

subject complement

the noun, subject pronoun, or adjective, that is linked to the subject by a linking verb, and tells more about the subject

predicate nominative

a subject complement that is a noun or pronoun

predicate adjective

a subject complement that is an adjective


a way of thinking about language

four levels of traditional grammar

parts of speech, parts of sentence, phrases, clauses

parts of speech

the eight kinds of words in English


the name of a person place or thing


a word that takes the place of a noun

subject pronouns

pronouns used for subjects of verbs and subject complements

list the subject pronouns

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they

object pronouns

pronouns used as direct or indirect objects, and objects of prepositions

list the object pronouns

me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them


a word that modifies a noun or pronoun


the three adjectives, a, an, and the

definite article

the adjective the

indefinite articles

the adjectives a and an

three degrees of adjectives

positive, comparative, superlative


a word that shows action, being, or links a subject to its subject complement


a word that joins two words or two groups of words

list all the coordinating conjunctions

and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet (FANBOYS)

list a few subordinating conjunctions

if, as, since, when, because...

correlative conjunctions

either or, neither nor, not only but also


shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence


shows emotion but has no grammatical function


comma before coordinating conjunction in compound sentence


semicolon between independent clauses if no coordinating conjunction


no comma after independent clause in complex sentence


comma after dependent clause in complex sentence


a group of words that does not have a subject and its predicate that acts as a single part of speech

prepositional phrase

a phrase beginning with a preposition, used as an adjective or an adverb


an interrupting definition


a verb form used as a noun, adjective, or adverb

the three kinds of verbals

gerunds, participle, and infinitives


an -ing verb form used as a noun


a verb form of carious ending used as an adjective


the to- form of the verb, used as a noun, adjective, or adverb


a group of words that has a subject and its predicate

independent clause

a clause that is a complete thought

dependent clause

a clause that is not a complete thought, but needs to be connected to an independent clause

the four clause structures

simple, compound, complex, compound-complex

simple sentence

a sentence with one independent clause

compound sentence

a sentence with two or more independent clauses

complex sentence

a sentence with an independent clause attached to a dependent clause

compound-complex sentence

a sentence with a compound structure and a complex structure

the four sentence purposes

declarative, imperative, interrogative, exclamatory

declarative sentence

a sentence that declares or makes a statement

imperative sentence

a sentence that is imperious, that makes a command

interrogative sentence

a sentence that interrogates, that asks a question

exclamatory sentence

a sentence that exclaims, that has an exclamation point


a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb

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