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Government Unit 1 study guide
Terms in this set (54)
The system that a country uses to make laws and run the country
the part of the government that is responsible for the entire country (national level)
governments of smaller areas such as regions, states, provinces, or cities
A form of government where the power is held by one central authority (national level) and local governments are very weak
federal system; federation
A form of government where the power is shared between the central (national) government and the governments of states or provinces
Voluntary association of independent states in which individual states hold more power than the central (national) government
autocratic system; autocracy
Government in which a single leader holds power and there is no limit on the power of the central government; there are no elections or powerful local governments; Leader can be a dictator or a monarch
a single leader who holds limitless power in an autocratic government; often uses force to silence the opposition
a king or queen; can be part of an autocratic government or a parliamentary democracy
Government led by a small, powerful, unelected group of aristocrats or military leaders
democracy; democratic system
system of government in which there are regular elections, allowing citizens to choose their own leaders or become leaders themselves; basic rights of citizens are protected by law
presidential and parliamentary
two types of democratic systems of government; differ by how the leaders are chosen and what they are called
legislature; legislative branch
A group of representatives that create laws; called Congress in a presidential system and Parliament in the parliamentary system
A system of democratic government in which the executive branch of the national government is headed by the president, while the legislative branch is headed by Congress; all voters can directly elect the leader (president)
executive leader elected by citizens in the presidential system; does not write laws--- carries out (enforces) the laws.
system of government with a cabinet of members who are responsible for decision making; the chief executive (government leader) is called the Prime Minister
the legislative branch in a parliamentary system of government; the prime minister is chosen among this group
the chief executive (government leader) in a parliamentary democracy; NOT directly chosen by the voters (chosen by Parliament)
A system of government in which the people choose political leaders to make policy decisions on their behalf.
How does representative democracy differ from direct democracy?
In a representative democracy citizens choose a group of people to represent them, make laws, and govern on their behalf. In a direct democracy all citizens met to discuss government matters and voted to decide what to do.
What is the difference between republic and a constitutional monarchy?
A Republic is a system of where the people have the right to elect their head of states and head of states usually stay on for a short term and can only be elected twice in every election until they retire or they have been voted out.
Constitutional Monarchy, the Head of State is of Monarchical background and they are simply born into it but are bounded by the constitutional laws of a parliament (eg the English Bill of Rights)
Philosopher who believes all people have the right to life, liberty, and property but that without government, they are unable to protect those rights unless they are strong enough to do so.
Declaration of Independence
document written by Thomas Jefferson to break away from Great Britain
the principle that the authority of government is created by the consent of its people, who are the source of all political power.
King George III
King of England who violated the social contract between Great Britain and the colonies
social contract theory
the voluntary agreement among individuals to give up some of their powers given to them in a state of nature to create an organized society with the right to secure mutual protection and welfare among its members.
What would Locke, Hobbes, and Montesquieu would most likely agree upon?
the state exists to serve the will of the people.
Ideas of the Declaration of Independence
People have certain natural rights.
Government can exist only with the people's permission.
The people may change or abolish the government.
The Magna Carta, Petition of Rights, and English Bill of Rights all have what common factor?
limited the power of government
Ideas in the Magna Carta
Limits Power of the King
All people are under the Law
Laws are written down
Who wrote the Spirit of Laws?
Who wrote the Second Treatise of Civil Government?
Who wrote Leviathan?
Examples of limited government in Magna Carta
1. gov't could not have say over church positions of power
2.king could demand more money in taxes
3. right to fair trial
Examples of limited government in Petition of Right
1. no quartering troops
2. no tax's without Parliament's approval
3. no person could be jailed without reason
Examples of limited government in English Bill of Rights
1. trial by jury
2. due process
3. no excessive fines/bails
4. no cruel punishment
5. right to bear arms
6. right to petition gov't
How did Hobbes affect our concept of government?
provided justification for Declaring Independence b/c King George III not providing good gov't to colonists
How did Locke affect our concept of government?
natural rights, representative gov't
How did Montesquieu affect our concept of government?
democracy best form of gov't, 3 branches with checks and balances
Checks and Balances
a system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Separation of Powers
the division of a central government into two or more branches, each having its own responsibilities and authorities.
Rule of Law
principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Introduction to the Constitution
a person who opposed a strong national government, wanted a Bill of Rights
a member of a former political party in the United States that favored a strong centralized federal government, against a Bill of Rights
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
the agreement by which Congress would have two houses (bicameral), the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
Supreme Court, the branch of the United States government responsible for the administration of justice or interprets the law
President, the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws or enforcing the law
Congress, the branch of the United States government that has the power of creating or making the laws
powers that congress has that are specifically listed in the constitution
Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
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