Cardiovascular System Notes
Terms in this set (59)
How many gallons of blood does the heart pump each year?
over 1 million
How many miles of blood vessels do you have in your body?
over 60,000 miles
Where is the heart located?
in the mediastinum
describe the apex
directed anteriorly, inferiorly and to the left
describe the base
directed posteriorly, superiorly and to the right
describe the anterior surface
deep to the sternum and ribs
describe the inferior surface
rests on the diaphragm
describe the right border
faces right lung
describe the left border
faces left lung
What are the 2 types of pericardium?
fibrous pericardium and serous pericardium
How many layers are there in the heart wall? Name them
3, epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium
describe the epicardium
is the visceral layer of serous pericardium
describe the myocardium
is the cardiac muscle layer that is the bulk of the heart
describe the endocardium
is the chamber lining and valves
what are the 4 chambers of the heart?
the right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricle
how many sulci are in the heart?
Where does the right atrium receive blood from?
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus
Where does the blood in the right atrium travel through to get to the right ventricle?
the tricuspid valve
where does the blood go to from the right ventricle?
to the lungs to pick up oxygen
Where does the left atrium receive blood from?
Where does the blood in the left atrium travel through to get to the left ventricle?
the bicuspid valve
How thick are the ventricle walls?
much thicker than atria walls
When do SL valves open and close?
open with ventricular contraction and close with ventricular relaxation
What are the 7 parts of system circulation?
1- left side of heart pumps blood through the body
2- left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into aorta
3- aorta branches into many arteries that travel to organs
4- arteries branch into many arterioles in tissue
5- arterioles branch into thin-walled capillaries for exchange of gases and nutrients
6- deoxygenated blood begins its return in venules
7- venules merge into veins and return to right atrium
What are the 5 parts of pulmonary circulation?
1- right side of heart pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs
2- right ventricle pumps blood to pulmonary trunk
3- pulmonary trunk branches into pulmonary arteries
4- pulmonary arteries carry blood to lungs for exchange of gases
5- oxygenated blood returns to heart in pulmonary veins
what gas does the heart need a lot of?
What are the 2 coronary arteries?
the left coronary artery and the right coronary artery
What are the 3 jobs of the coronary veins?
to collect wastes from cardiac muscle, drain into a large sinus on posterior surface of heart (coronary sinus) , and empty into the right atrium
What is the function of the SA node?
to begin heart activity that spreads to both atria
How fast does the SA node fire?
90-100 times per minute
What is the function of the AV node?
to transmit signal to the bundle of HIS
How fast does the AV node fire?
40-50 times per minute
What is the function of the AV bundle of HIS?
to be the connection between atria and ventricles
What does ECG and EKG stand for?
describe the p wave
is atrial depolarization
describe the p to q interval
is the conduction time from atrial to ventricular excitation
describe the qrs complex
is ventricular depolarization
describe the t wave
is ventricular repolarization
describe the EDV
(end diastolic volume)- volume in ventricle at end diastole, about 130 ml
(end systolic volume)- volume in ventricle at end of systole, about 60 ml
(stroke volume)- the volume ejected per beat from each ventricle, about 70 ml
How do you perform auscultation with the heart?
by turbulence in blood flow caused by valve closure
What is the formula for cardiac output?
What are the risk factors for heart disease?
high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, obesity, and lack of regular exercise
what about other factors?
diabetes mellitus, genetic predisposition, male gender, high blood levels of fibrinogen, and left ventricular hypertrophy
What are LDLs
low density lipoproteins
how do LDLs effect cholesterol
by being associated with the formation of fatty plagues
what are the normal levels for LDLs?
under 130 mg/dl
What are HDLs?
high density lipoproteins
How do HDLs effect cholesterol?
by removing excess cholesterol from circulation
What are normal levels for HDLs?
over 40 mg/dl
What are VLDLs?
very low density proteins
How do VLDLs effect cholesterol?
by being contributed to increased fatty plaque formation
What are normal levels of VLDLs?
none or low
What is atherosclerosis?
smooth muscle and fatty deposits in walls of arteries
How do you treat atherosclerosis?
What is an MI?
myocardial infarction, it is the death of area of heart muscle from lack of oxygen
What is an angioplasty?
when a ballon is inserted in an obstructed area of an artery, inflated, and then deflated and pulled out
What is an artery stent?
put in an artery to maintain patency of blood vessel
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