The respiratory mucosa is continuous through the:
1. upper and lower respiratory tracts
2. nasal cavities and the sinuses
3. nasopharynx and oropharynx
4. middle ear cavity and auditory tube
The maximum volume of air a person can exhale after a maximum inspiration is termed the:
Which of the following values is always decreased with respiratory alkalosis (compensated or decompensated)?
What would be the most effective compensation for respiratory acidosis?
the kidneys producing more bicarbonate ions
What is the acid-base status of a patient with the following values for arterial blood gases?
serum bicarbonate 36.5 mmol/L (normal range: 22-28)
PCO2 75 mm Hg (normal range: 35-45)
serum pH 7.0
decompensated respiratory acidosis
What does carbaminohemoglobin refer to?
carbon dioxide attached to an amino group on the hemoglobin molecule
Choose the correct information applying to laryngotracheobronchitis:
viral infection in child, 3 months to 3 years
Signs and symptoms of acute sinusitis usually include:
severe localized pain and tenderness in the face
What are early signs and symptoms of infectious rhinitis?
serous nasal discharge, congestion, and sneezing
Why does the influenza virus cause recurrent infection in individuals?
Viral mutation reduces immunity from prior infections.
Which of the following describes lobar pneumonia?
sudden onset of fever and chills, with rales and rusty sputum
Rust-colored sputum in a patient with pneumonia usually indicates:
prolonged stasis of mucous secretions in the airways
Select the statement related to tuberculosis:
The microbe is an acid-fast bacillus, resistant to many disinfectants.
When does active (secondary) infection by M. tuberculosis with tissue destruction occur?
Host resistance is decreased for any reason.
Which of the following statements does NOT apply to M. tuberculosis?
Microbes can survive for a long time inside tubercles.
Which of the following confirms the presence of active (reinfection) tuberculosis?
identification of acid-fast bacilli in a sputum sample
Which of the following is a major factor contributing to the current increase in cases of tuberculosis?
the increase in immunodeficient individuals
The basic pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis is considered to be:
an abnormality of the exocrine glands
Growth and development of a child with cystic fibrosis may be delayed because of:
mucus plugs obstructing the flow of pancreatic enzymes
Persistent thick mucus in the bronchioles of a child with cystic fibrosis may cause:
1. air trapping
3. repeated infections
4. irreversible damage to lung tissue
Cigarette smoking predisposes to malignant neoplasms because smoking:
causes metaplasia and dysplasia in the epithelium
Why does hypercalcemia occur with bronchogenic carcinoma?
secretion of parathyroid or like hormone by the tumor
What is a sign indicating total obstruction of the airway by aspirated material?
rapid loss of consciousness
Which of the following predisposes to postoperative aspiration?
depression of the cough and swallow reflexes by drugs
What is the pathophysiology of an acute attack of extrinsic asthma?
type 1 hypersensitivity reaction
During an acute asthma attack, how does respiratory obstruction occur?
2. edema of the mucosa
3. increased secretion of thick, tenacious mucus
What cause the expanded A-P thoracic diameter (barrel chest) in patients with emphysema?
air trapping and hyperinflation
When patients with chronic hypercapnia are administered oxygen:
blood levels of oxygen should remain slightly below normal
What is the cause of chronic bronchitis?
chronic irritation, inflammation, and recurrent infection of the larger airways
What are typical pathological changes with bronchiectasis?
airway obstructions and weak, dilated bronchial walls
Which of the following are significant signs of bronchiectasis?
chronic cough producing large quantities of purulent sputum
Why does cor pulmonale develop with chronic pulmonary disease?
Pulmonary fibrosis and vasoconstriction increase vascular resistance.
What is caused by frequent inhalation of irritating particles such as silica?
fibrosis and loss of compliance
Which of the following is NOT a cause of pulmonary edema?
hyperproteinemia and increasing osmotic pressure of the blood
Which of the following is a common source of a pulmonary embolus?
thrombus forming in the femoral veins
Which manifestation(s) of atelectasis is/are associated with airway obstruction?
decreased breath sounds on the affected side
How does total obstruction of a major bronchus lead to atelectasis?
Air is absorbed from the alveoli distal to the obstruction.
How does a large pleural effusion cause atelectasis?
The cohesion between the pleural membranes is disrupted.
With a flail chest injury, events during inspiration include:
the mediastinum shifts toward the unaffected side
Which of the following is a manifestation of a simple closed pneumothorax?
asymmetrical chest movements
Which of the following is an effect of a large open pneumothorax (sucking wound)?
With a tension pneumothorax, which factors contribute to severe hypoxia?
continually increasing pressure on the unaffected lung
Which of the following statements describe the pathophysiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome?
1. damage leading to increased permeability of the alveolar walls
3. excessive fluid and protein interstitially and in the alveoli
Which of the following does NOT apply to carbon dioxide?
It is replaced on hemoglobin by oxygen in the lungs.
SARS typically begins as a flulike syndrome followed after a few days by:
interstitial lung congestion, dyspnea, and dry cough
In addition to effects on the lungs and pancreas, cystic fibrosis causes:
high sodium chloride content in saliva and sweat
Which of the following is a significant early sign of bronchogenic carcinoma in a smoker?
hemoptysis and weight loss
Which of the following is likely to cause pneumothorax or hemothorax in a patient with bronchogenic carcinoma?
The tumor causes inflammation and erosion of the pleural membranes.
Which of the following would confirm a diagnosis of primary tuberculosis?
small areas of calcification on a chest X-ray
Which of the following drugs is usually prescribed for prophylaxis in persons in close contact with a patient with active tuberculosis?
Choose the correct reason for severe hypoxia occurring with pulmonary edema:
Diffusion of oxygen into the pulmonary capillaries is impaired.
Which of the following drugs in an inhaler would likely be carried by individuals to provide immediate control of acute asthma attacks?
a beta-2-adrenergic agent
Which of the following values for arterial blood gases would be expected in a patient with advanced emphysema?
increased PCO2, increased bicarbonate ion, serum pH 7.35
Which factors contribute to postoperative atelectasis?
2. drug-related respiratory depression
3. abdominal distention and pain
All of the following are expected with infant respiratory distress syndrome EXCEPT:
Which factor usually causes metabolic acidosis to develop in association with hypoxia?
Which of the following individuals is NOT considered to be at high risk for developing active tuberculosis?
persons who experience acute asthma attacks
Which of the following distinguishes influenza from infectious rhinitis?
Influenza has a sudden onset with fever, marked muscle aching, and severe malaise.
The use of a continuous positive airway pump in the treatment of sleep apnea will:
prevent collapse of pharyngeal tissues
Which of the following applies to anthrax infection?
When inhaled it causes flulike symptoms followed by acute respiratory distress.