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Terms in this set (29)
Where does the energy come from for water circulation and atmospheric circulation and evaporation/precipitation
Where is water stored on Earth?
Water is continually moving around, through, and above the Earth as water vapor, liquid water, and ice: water cycle
Where do you find most of the water on Earth?
In the ocean
Where is most of the fresh water stored?
Most of the earth's fresh water is stored as ice in the Arctic and Antarctic regions of the globe. About 1.7% of the earth's entire water supply exists in icecaps.
What are the saturated zone
the rock and soil in which all the open spaces are filled with water
What is an unsaturated zone?
is the rock and sediment in which pore spaces contain mostly air and some water and therefore are not saturated. It starts at the surface and extends downward
What is the water table?
the contact between the saturated and unsaturated zone
What is ground water
Water filling all the unblocked pores of underlying material below the water table, which is the upper limit of saturation
Describe the hydrologic cycle of a hill slope
Most rain falls and drains into valleys
What is overland flow/surface runoff
is the water flow that occurs when the soil is infiltrated to its full capacity and excess water from rain, meltwater, or other sources
What components of the hillslope hydrologic cycle increase the surface runoff and (cause flooding)
What is a watershed?
An area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas
What are tributaries
A river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake
What are the units of streamflow
cubic feet per second
What is discharge
it is the amount of water flowing through a specific cross section along the river
How is discharge related to the velocity of flow and the cross-sectional area of a stream channel
What is a flood plain
a low plain adjacent to a river that is formed chiefly of river sediment and is subject to flooding.
How is a flood plain formed
The board, flat area that extends out from a stream's bankand is covered by excess water during times of flooding
What is a flood
An overflowing of a large amount of water beyond its normal confines, esp. over what is normally dry land: "a flood barrier".
How often does an alluvial stream overtop its banks
moderate flood: every 10 years on average.
What is a hydrograph
A hydrograph is a graph showing changes in the discharge of a river over a period of time.
What is an alluvial stream as compared to a bedrock stream
A bedrock river is a river that typically has little to no alluvium (unconsolidated, loose soil or sediment) mantling the bedrock over which it flows.
What factors tend to increase the severity of floods?
Earthquakes, landslides, coastal erosion, human interaction (land use changes, dam construction and urbanization)
What is a 100 year flood?
A one-hundred-year flood is calculated to be the level of flood water expected to be equaled or exceeded every 100 years on average
How is the 100 year flood determined
Based on the expected 100-year flood flow rate in a given creek, river or surface water system, the flood water level can be mapped as an area of inundation, showing where the 100 year flood will effect.
What options are available for "dealing with" flood hazards?
Channelization: redirects and allows for running water to navigate easier. Channel restoration: create a natural channel by allowing the stream to meander and reconstruct variable water flow. Physical barriers: levees, flood walls, reservoirs and retention basins.
How are the pros and cons for each of the flood hazard options
Cons: Physical barriers: need to be maintained. Channelization: affects plants and animals, wildlife. Channel Restoration: have to clean urban waste in order to allow for channel to flow freely.
What effects do levees have on flood stages at the site of the levees
bring down chance of floods here
What effects do levees have on flood stages upstream of the site of the levees
worsen upstream floods
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