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Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff; Clay and Calhoun supported as part of American System; Southern cotton growers opposed
"Tariff of Abominations" (1828)
Higher protective measures for New England mills; Southerners outraged, including Calhoun
Tariff of 1832
Moderate reform returned rates to 1824 levels; unmoved South Carolina sparked Nullification Crisis
Tariff of 1833
Clay compromise; gradual reduction of rates over time to 1816 levels; New England states opposed
Wartime Tariff Acts (1861-1865)
Steadily increased protectionism to help fund Union war costs; South not represented in Congress during Civil War
Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)
Attempt to lower average level of duties; little meaningful reform; Progressives angered
Underwood-Simmons Tariff (1913)
Democrats took control of Congress; general duty reduction soon negated by outbreak of World War I; federal income tax provision
Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)
Increased rates sharply; president empowered to adjust rates; Tariff Commission created to advise president
Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)
Raised U.S. duties to an all-time high; 1,000 economists protested; foreign retaliation
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1948)
United Nations organization created to seek tariff reductions
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