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Tariff of 1789

Primarily for revenue; some protection for "infant industries"

Tariff of 1816

First protective tariff; Clay and Calhoun supported as part of American System; Southern cotton growers opposed

Tariff of 1824

Further heightening of rates; growing opposition from South

"Tariff of Abominations" (1828)

Higher protective measures for New England mills; Southerners outraged, including Calhoun

Tariff of 1832

Moderate reform returned rates to 1824 levels; unmoved South Carolina sparked Nullification Crisis

Tariff of 1833

Clay compromise; gradual reduction of rates over time to 1816 levels; New England states opposed

Wartime Tariff Acts (1861-1865)

Steadily increased protectionism to help fund Union war costs; South not represented in Congress during Civil War

McKinley Tariff (1890)

Highest protective tariff to date; average above 48 percent

Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)

Attempt to lower average level of duties; little meaningful reform; Progressives angered

Underwood-Simmons Tariff (1913)

Democrats took control of Congress; general duty reduction soon negated by outbreak of World War I; federal income tax provision

Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)

Increased rates sharply; president empowered to adjust rates; Tariff Commission created to advise president

Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)

Raised U.S. duties to an all-time high; 1,000 economists protested; foreign retaliation

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1948)

United Nations organization created to seek tariff reductions

North American Free Trade Agreement (1993)

U.S., Canada, and Mexico end most trade barriers

GATT/WTO (1994)

New GATT agreement signed; World Trade Organization (WTO) formed

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