45 terms

Honors US History Unit 2 Key Terms

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French and Indian War
a war between France and England that erupted in 1754 in North America and ended in 1763
Proclamation of 1763
law forbidding English colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
republicanism
A form of government in which people elect representatives to create and enforce laws
Mercantilism
The theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys
Sugar Act
law placing a tax on sugar, molasses, and other products shipped to the colonies
Quartering Act
Required colonists to house British soldiers
Stamp Act
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
Sons of Liberty
Groups of Patriots who worked to oppose British rule before the American Revolution
Daughters of Liberty
groups of American women patriots who wove cloth to replace boycotted British goods
Townshend Acts
laws passed in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
Boston Massacre
incident in 1770 in which British troops fired on and killed American colonists
committees of correspondence
organized network for passing along news of British activity to the colonies
Boston Tea Party
Protest led by Sons of Liberty against the Tea Act of 1773.
Intolerable Acts
1774; A series of measures enacted by Parliament to punish the Massachusetts colony
First Continental Congress
1774; a meeting of colonial delegates to discuss how to address problems with Great Britain; Philadelphia
Lexington and Concord
1775; sites in Massachusetts of the first battles of the American Revolution
Valley Forge
Location in Pennsylvania where Washington's army spent a difficult winter in 1777-1778
Second Continental Congress
Political authority that directed the struggle for independence beginning in 1775.
Bunker Hill
1775; first official battle of the American Revolutionary War
Olive Branch Petition
An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll
Hessians
German mercenaries hired by the British
Common Sense
A 1776 essay by Thomas Paine that urged the colonies to declare independence
Declaration of Independence
1776; the document that formally announced the colonies' break from Great Britain
Declaration of the Rights of Man
a statement of revolutionary ideals adopted by France's National Assembly in 1789
loyalists
colonists who supported the British Crown
patriots
American colonists who supported independence from Great Britain.
Battle of Trenton
Surprise attack across the Deleware River on December 26, 1776. Led by George Washington, it was an American victory
Battle of Saratoga
1777; decisive victory for colonists that is considered a turning point as it convinced France to aid American revolutionary force
privateers
private ships hired by a country to attack its enemies
Battle of Yorktown
1781 American Revolutionary War battle in Virginia after which the British declared defeat
Treaty of Paris 1783
agreement to end the American Revolutionary War
Treaty of Paris 1763
ended the French and Indian War
civic virtue
notion that democracy depended on unselfish commitment to the public good
republican motherhood
concept that women were suppose to raise children to be good citizens
Articles of Confederation
original federal constitution drafted by the Continental Congress in 1777
Land Ordinance of 1785
set up a system for surveying and dividing western lands
Northwest Ordinance
Outlined a path to statehood for territories; forbade the expansion of slavery in new territories
Shay's Rebellion
1786; displayed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation
Virginia Plan
states would have delegates proportionate to population or wealth
New Jersey Plan
states would have equal representation regardless of population
Great Compromise
proposed by Connecticut: bicameral: two houses- one based on population; one state reps are equal
three-fifths compromise
each slave counts as three-fifths of a person when determining a states' population
antifederalists
Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government
federalists
Supporters of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government.
The Federalist
A series of essays defending and explaining the constitution