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Wildlife Conservation Test 3
Terms in this set (121)
What influences the density and distribution of urban wildlife?
-Habitat availability and diversity
-Trees, bushes, pond, creek, greenbelts, parks
-Sheds, barns, gardens, dog food, garbage
-But, urban monoculture
-Too much cement-vegetation sparse, home range too big
-No hunting or trapping
-No large natural predators
-Cats eating birds
In general, how are urban and rural bird communities different?
Bird Community Differences
-HIgh number of exotics, biomass (more individuals, and high density. Low abundance of natives, low number of species
-Low abundance of exotics, low biomass, and low density. High abundance of natives, high number of species
What are the major components to consider when landscaping for wildlife?
Brush piles, snags, water, feeders, nest boxes
Conifers, grasses, nut trees; seasonal plants, for hummingbirds/butterflies/bees/moths
Animals/Pets-chase animals away, keeps them from eating your plants. Must keep pets inside in order to have wildlife come to your yard
In general, what kinds of "problems" are there with wildlife in urban areas? In non-urban areas?
Wildlife problems in urban areas-nuisance-raccoon and striped skunk
Damage-squirrels and woodchucks, deer
Safety-deathly moose-car accident, goose-stuck in airplane enigine/blade, mouse nest-chew wire, set fire
Aesthetics- bird poop on car. Poop on grass
Non-Urban Animal Damage
-When urban, exotic or other wildlife become problems to humans or ecosystems, control must be implemented
Historically, manly lethal weapons use
No real concern for animal welfare
What are the important components of wildlife nuisance/damage management that need to be considered to deal with it effectively?
Considerations concerning animals damage management
-Overabundant vs. underabundant animals
-What kind of problem is it?-economic, disease, nuisance
-What is the magnitude of the problem?
-Know /review techniques
Know the various methods/techniques used in animal damage management, including examples and limitations.
Control techniques-consequences to each
-Economic reimbursement-pay people to put up with it
-Husbandry-take care of your resources
-Mechanical barrier-fence, electrical fence
-Habitat modification-could have them in place where you don't want them to be
-Chemo-sterilant-chemically keep animals from reproducing
-Trap/relocate-but survival of relocated animas is low-illegal to translocate wildlife in MA, can't move an opossum 2 miles down the street
-Shooting, trapping, poisoning
Why is prevention the key to effective wildlife damage management?
-This is the key-don't let a problem happen at all
Anticipate the problem
Get at the problems when they are small, when they first start happening
Define "harvest" as it should be used in wildlife conservation.
Harvest - any removal from the wild -using a resource
What is the difference between hunting, commercial harvesting, and poaching?
Hunting and trapping - legal harvest of wildlife by individual citizens for personal use
Commercial harvesting - legal "harvest" intended for sale
Poaching intentional killing out of season, without a license/permit, etc.-cactus, wildlife, fish, coral. ILLEGAL
What roles do hunting and trapping fill as people do it today?
Food -lots of people legally harvest wild animals for food
In the Amazon, 39-96 pounds of birds are eaten, less of other animals
In Alaska, mostly eat fish, then land mammals, then marine mammals
Clothing -skins of animals used for clothing-leather and fur.
Individual income -how people make a living-sell meat at market
Protection of resources. Not usually humans they are trying to protect, but more like keeping coyotes from killing sheep, elephants from damaging crops so that their resoruces aren't destroyed
Recreation-Hunting and trapping for fun. Sometimes for the enjoyment of nature
Social reasons-Spending time with friends while hunting
Overpopulation-need to maintain a balance and help solve problems
Endangered species management-increasing coyote harvest to keep their numbers down in order for other populations to increase
Financial and political support -money spent on waterfowl stamps to pay for habitat management, enforcement of rules, and land protection
Why is hunting and trapping so controversial?
Culture-some differences within societies and some between societies-fashion and attitudes
History-it's the tradition, that's what we do vs. out with the old in with the new
Experience-ex. Killing an animals, preparing it, cooking and eating it is different from opening a plastic package and eating an animal from a store
What do some people feel is wrong with hunting and trapping?
Too many populations are "endangered"-because of "overharvest" which at the time was legal, but just stupid because of human error
Unnecessary -given abundance of other things to eat, and synthetic fibers of clothes. You can enjoy it but not physically consume it
Hunting has to do with guns-gun control debate-guns killing people affects hunting guns
Some means of harvest are inhumane or non-sporting -shooting out of a helicopter
"fair chase"-don't use night vision goggles and hunt at night. Not sporting, animal has no chance
Trophy hunting - excessive behavior-idea that all you are trying to do is find the biggest one and shoot it. Why is bigger better? Seems too elite
Unethical/morally wrong wrong to take the life of other animals
No experience an unfamiliar activity-like baseball-why is a no hitter exciting?
Some people have no experience with hunting and trapping and don't know what it's like, why would you want to sit in a deer stand for 4 hours and wait for a deer to walk by. People aren't comfortable with death overall
From the biological and social perspectives how should we deal with hunting and trapping?
From a biological perspective, what should we do?
Identify the effects on populations -can use what we know about population dyamics to guess what would happen with hunting and trapping
Identify the impacts of overpopulation-what does overpopulation do to animal population?
Conduct sustainable management-Come up with best management to sustain a particular system over time
From the Social perspective, what do we do?
Enhance law enforcement-
So much of what we detest is poaching
Encourage open discussion among "user groups"
Important that you understand other points of view and listen. Sports hunting, overabundant wildlife, importing meat,
Be willing to pay
Who should pay for management? Governments, business, us...people are more willing to pay for things depending on how they are done
Understand differing societal values
Some people would argue that hunting is a huge experience in environmental education. Don't be so quick to not listen, be quick to listen.
According to a recent national survey, what percent of Americans approve of legal hunting? How did this number vary with human population density?
73% of Americans approve of legal hunting.
The respondents tended to approve of hunting in a ratio inverse to the density of the human population where they lived. People who live closer to nature are more likely to accept killing and eating animals than those who live in urban areas, with less contact.
What is the actual percent of Americans that hunt? Canadians?
Americans-6.2% of Americans older than the age of 15 hunt
Canadians-5.1% of Canadians older than the age of 15 hunt
What are the four precursors to the animal rights movement (from Muth and Jamison 2000)?
a-an urban view of nature that is disconnected from the reality of wild nature
b-popularized interpretations of science on television or in published media
c-anthropomorphism, the application of human traits, especially feelings, to nonhuman animals
d-an egalitarian notion that assigns the same legal and ethical rights to animals as it does to humans
What are four ways to minimize conflicts between hunters and anti-hunters (from Kellert 1978)?
1-place greater educational emphasis on the ecologistic attitude as a way of establishing a dialogue between hunters and antihunters. this attitude represents ideas compatible with both groups
2-encourage greater governmental recognition of different attitudes towards animals as reflecting multiple uses and satisfactions derived from wildlife. Management for different types of hunters. Recognition of moralistic and humanistic attitudes concerning cruelty and animal welfare
3-Diversify wildlife funding sources to include contributions from antihunters and other potential nonconsumptive users of wildlife resources
4-Increase attention and financial allocation for nongame research and recreational programs
Are harvest levels usually set for "optimum yield", or are they typically set more conservatively?
They are usually set at optimum yield, meaning the quantity of the animal 1-that will provide the greatest overall benefit to the nation, with reference to food production and recreational activities, and 2-that is prescribed as such on the basis of maximum sustained yield as modified by any relevant economic, social, or ecological factors
What is "adaptive harvest management"?
The concept applies the flow of new data to continually update two or more competing hypotheses, with the goal of strengthening the acceptance and influence of those that best reflect the actual outcome. It can be applied to forestry, fisheries, or other disciplines, but cannot be used certainly for wildlife.
How are trends in woodcock populations monitored?
1-counting males singing on the breeding grounds
2-determining an age ratio, which compares juveniles (birds hatched in the current calendar year) to the number of adults (birds one year and older)
3-bag checks-the daily success of hunters in taking woodcock
What is the best management strategy to achieve maximum turkey population growth and maximum hunting recreation?
Male-only spring hunts
Why were "buck laws" instigated, and what is the problem that eventually has resulted from them?
Buck laws were instigated. Because one buck often breeds with several does, an imbalanced sex ratio favoring females can greatly increase reproduction. The law enacted a limit of one antlered deer per hunter per year, allowing for more reproduction and increased numbers as a result.
Why have numbers of women hunters increased recently?
-more women are joining their male companions in outdoor recreation
-more women are learning to shoot competently as a means of self-protection, and hunting is a natural extension of such proficiency with weapons
-the manufacturers of sporting arms started to produce rifles, shotguns, and archery equipment designed expressly for women
What is the "Millennium Accord"?
It is now under consideration by the various states and provinces. Its purpose is
1-to create the philosophical environment for consensus and action on hunting-related programs, strategies, and initiatives
2-to publicize and renew hunters' contributions and commitments to wildlife conservation
3-to provide focus of hunters' effort in wildlife conservation, hunter education, safety, recruitment, ethics, and cooperative initiatives with others
4-to provide a basis for reporting progress toward reaching these goals be agencies and organizations associated with hunting
What is controversial about trapping?
1-traps cause animals suffering
2-taking an animal's life for the sake of fashion is immoral
3-that trapping kills or maims many nontarget species
1-harvest data from trappers help wildlife managers keep track of furbearer populations
2-trapping provides an annual crop of furs that otherwise would be lost to other forms of mortality
3-fur sales help the economic welfare of states and individuals
4-rabies, distemper, and other diseases are suppressed by trapping
5-the inevitable death of an animal probably is less painful for a trapped animal than it would be from starvation, predation, or other "natural" causes
What are exotic species?
a species not native to an area, most of the time are introduced by humans. How long ago were they introduced by humans? 4000-6000 years ago.
How did/do exotic species get to new places?
Accidents on ships-mice, got loose-horses and burros,
Aesthetics -English house sparrows-introduced because people thought they were cool
Economic benefit -Raccoon dog, a canine introduced into Scandinavia from China
Sport hunting -Chukar partridge-brought to increase opportunities for hunting
Endangerment in native habitat-white rhinos-endangered species management
What are the undesirable features of some exotic species?
Economic damage-nutria were raised for fur and brought to South, but they escaped. Now are resident in 18 states at high densities. They burrow into banks and through dikes-cause more flooding than anticipated. Eat sugar beets
mute swans European-exotic in US. Extremely territorial and aggressive, will take over and exclude all over waterfowl from breeding in a pond or lake. Ruins indigenous habitat
Gray squirrels Native, but were introduced in England. Did really well and outcompeted the native red squirrel.
Sika deer-Chinese deer that were introduced to Texas. Eat a lot of browse, compete with white-tailed deer. White tailed deer can't survive under stressful situations where sika deer are involved
Chinese ring-necked pheasants Chinese. Introduced into US. Released, and shot for sport. What are consequences? They attack native prairie chickens and drive them from their display/breeding grounds so they can't breed. Lay eggs in prairie chicken nests and hope that they will raise their young as well as their own.
wild boars European. There are 1000 wild boars harvested every year in US> They damage vegetation, agriculture, ground nesting birds, compete with native wildlife, eat acorns, carry infectious diseases
brown tree snakes Got to Guam in a plane. The snakes eat baby rails (birds) and drove them almost to extinction
American mink in Europe Harm the water vole in the UK, eat what they et and outcompete them
Rat predation on birds in Hawaii
ducks in Australia Grey duck, Mallard duck exotic to Australia, produce Grey-Mallard duck.-May lose grey ducks because they produce hybrids
Contrast the success of introduced European starlings and crested mynahs.
European starlings (successful)- Native to Europe, are beautiful (why they were brought to US), 1890 introduced to NYC, 1930 made it to Texas, 1940 past the rockies, 1960's out to West Coast, 1970 Alaska.
Crested mynah (unsuccessful)Introduced to Vancouver, British Columbia. Just stayed in Vancouver. They are Asian, from a part of the world with different environmental circumstances-light, temperature, not used to conditions near coast and mountains
What are the characteristics of successful exotic species?
- r (fast) - selected breed fast, and a lot. Potential for population increase is very high
- broad and plastic niche - generalists not picky about what they eat, where they live
- low territoriality Don't care if they have a of neighbors
What conditions encourage colonization by exotics?
- abundant resources food, habitat
- similar environmental conditions from where you came from
- niche vacancies cats would be great in a place that have never had cats before-no predators/competition
Why are there "niche vacancies" for exotics?
-Not very many native species in disturbed habitats-grasslands-but are many introduced species. Vice versa for original undisturbed forests
-only evolved recently, species that are able to take advantage of urban habitats-like being in a whole new world you didn't evolve in-garbage, warm places to go, no one was living there before (niche vacancies)
What is the story with New Zealand exotics?
New Zealand -large, isolated island, lots of mountains and sheep, lots of endemic birds (only found in this area), only 2 indigenous mammal species (both are bats), English settled in NZ in 1840's, brought animals
Introduced 15 fishes, and 13 were established. 3/5 amphibians, 0/3 reptiles, 43/138 birds, 32/54 mammals..changed New Zealand
How do successful bird vs. mammal exotics in New Zealand differ?
Birds survived well in disturbed habitats, mammals survived well in both disturbed and undisturbed habitats
What are 2 reasons why some parks overpopulated with wildlife?
Elimination of natural predation and hunting
What are six ways in which wildlife managers attempt to reduce growth rates of rapidly expanding animal populations?
-encouraging more hunting
-immunocontraceptive (to prevent fertilization)
According to Miller (1982), why is "pure" preservation a flawed concept how can the concept of nature reserves in developing countries be better justified?
"Pure" preservation is flawed because human influences already may have disrupted natural systems. Fences prohibit the natural movement of animals; and roads, campgrounds, and concession areas in parks violate and displace natural environments
Nature reserves in developing countries
the economic benefits from tourism should be directed to local communities to gain their support. This way, they can build up their communities
What were the reasons that the predator-prey ratio changed in Kruger National Park in S. Africa?
Grazers adapted to shortgrass, such as the zebra and the wildebeest, seem more vulnerable to lion predation in wet years, when grass grows tall. the general decline of these species halted temporarily during the dry years but resumed with the wet years.
What was the largest single addition to the National Wildlife Refuge System and when?
Occurred in 1980, when more than 21.8 million ha of land in Alaska became part of the federal system, this resulted from the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act
In which state is most of the refuge land and what percentage of total refuge land does it comprise?
More than 80% of the systems ha are in Alaska
What are five major functions of refuges and what is an example of each?
The National Bison Range
REST STOPS FOR MIGRATORY BIRDS
There are resting areas about 320km apart in each flyway
PROTECTION OF UNIQUE OR HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE NATURAL SYSTEMS
Wetlands of International Importance
WILDLIFE DEPENDENT RECREATION
hikes, picnics, photography, boating
Federal refuge bordering Great Salt Lake in Utah for field and clinical studies
What is an "organic act"?
An organic act is a legislative charter that describes the agency's mission on the land it administers . (Must claim the land for use)
What are the general provisions of the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997?
-defines the mission of the system: administer a national network of lands and water for conservation, management, etc with the US for the benefit of present and future
-defines compatible wildlife dependent recreation as legitimate and appropriate public use
-requires the secretary of the interior to ensure environmental health of the refuge system
-retains the authority of the refuge manager to determine compatible public uses, when they will be allowed, etc
-requires each refuge to develop a comprehensive plan within 15 years and to update the plan every 15 years
What are the major problems concerning wildlife conservation worldwide?
Destruction of tropical rain forests-Europe, Africa, Asia, cleared for logging and pastureland-loss of species, exchange in balance of CO2
Increase in desertification-because of overgrazing, climate change, positive feedback loop
Persistence/spread of chemicals/herbicides-related to agriculture, disposal of wastes, misuse of chemicals and pesticides, unknown connections between things.
Antibiotic chemical used in cattle. When vultures fed on the cattle, they died
Loss of habitat, in general, outside of the tropics-because of change in land use, slash and burn, deforestation
Illegal trade/traffic in "protected" or endangered species-one of the major factors for a number of species. Can be plants as well as animals
What general factors contribute to international wildlife conservation problems?
Political turmoil-who is in charge and who cares?
Population explosion-more need for people to use resources
Poor economies-people aren't happy because things aren't going well. Use of certain resources in a way that certain values aren't important
Greedy consumers-people want stuff. Rich people
With respect to international trade of wildlife, what kinds of trade are of concern? Who are the producers and consumers of wildlife in this trade?
What kinds of trade?-sometimes it's food products, like whale meat, sometimes it's pets, and then there are other kinds of products-purses, sometimes just for art (butterflies) cool to look at
Who are the consumers of wildlife?-usually developed nations with lots of hard currency-western Europe, Japan, China-related to leisure time, affluence
Who are the producers?-the people who live with the resource. Often in tropical countries, and they often need the money.
What is CITES and it's Appendices?
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)signed to regulate commerce, 1973. At least 160 independent nations agreed to abide by this treaty. It was voluntary. Meet every 2-3 years to discuss issues regarding wildlife trade. Ensure that trade is sustainable, did it right regardless of cultured and values, bring up issues
Different species should have different trade steps:
Appendix I - species are endangered, no matter what country-the most protected species. Need both import and export permit to move animals. Commercial trade is virtually nil-usually done
Appendix II - species are considered threatened, no matter what country-species are considered threatened, no matter what country. Need export permit from country of origin. Ex. Pangolins (mammals) and dholes (wild dogs)
Appendix III - considered threatened by exporting country, maybe others-the exporting country regultaes imporrt
What is required to delist a species from a CITES listing?
Positive scientific evidence that a species can withstand exploitation-breed fast, have lotts of young
Well-documented population -use surveys or trend estimated with grout that shows increasing populations
Comprehensive trade analyses
What is "blanket-listing"?
Blanket-listing-listing of all closely related species, protect them all
Similarity of appearance-products difficult to distinguish.
Domino effect-can't kill jaguars, but can kill another spscies, to stop: jagurar keys killed
Trade implications-people try to slip stuff in
What are some problems with CITES?
Enforcement-hard-there are laws but they are not always followed
Not all nations have signed-a funnel for illegal wildlife. Can go to those countried and buy things, but can't bring them everywhere
Appendix II species are often rubber-stamped-need an export permit, so they are quikly rubber-stamped
Some trade still occurs-because it is worth a lot of money, like the drug trade
Conflicts -between countries for political reasons, within countries when governments break down
How are parks and reserves valuable?
preservation of "habitat"-might be able to maintain a viable population of plants and animals, a sustainable working system
controlled management of vegetation and wildlife-Can remove exotics, control grazing, control hunting and fishing.
research opportunities-these areas are less influenced by people, sometimes considered to be pristine-without people screwing them up. A unique area to study
public relations-some species gain a high profile because they like to be looked at-rare, people can go see them
financial gain & reduced pressure to develop lands-bring money in with tourism
What problems are there in parks and reserves with respect to wildlife?
loss of genetic integrity Parks are isolated, islands of wildness in the middle of "not wildness". Loss is greater with a smaller place
overpopulation If you let things go, population will crash.
direct problems with humans Ex. People giving food to bears-trash, coolers, etc.
indirect problems with humans Encroachment people to do mining, creates a road, etc.
What kinds of things are restricted in protected areas?
1. Strict nature reserve/wilderness area Cabo Blanco Biological Reserve, Costa Rica-protected for science, and only access allowed is for scientific research. Sometimes no motorized traffic
2. National park Krugo National Park, South Africa-maintained for animal ecosystem and human recreation
3. Natural monument-protected areas established for the conservation of specific geographic/geological feature. Ex. Devil's Tower, USA. Could be developed or undeveloped. Intended to be used by people
4. Habitat/Species Management Area For conservation of wildlife and ecosystem through active management. Realizes there will be interactions between people and animals. Fire, Livestock, hunting. Ex. Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania-2x size of MA. Has many wild dogs. Hs restricted human access
5. Protected Landscape/Seascape Dartmoor National Park, UK
Provides access and facilities for open air enjoyment by people. 31,000 people live there
6. Managed Resource Protected Area Managed for the sustainable use of national ecosystems, for the use of nature by people. Ex. Kiunga Marine National Reserve, Kenya. Are highly managed human activities in the park
What are the general guidelines for establishing a park or reserve?
Adequate legal protection-laws in place that say what you can and can't do
Adequate actual protection in the field laws that are enforced
At least 10 km2 (1000 hectares) = 4 miles2 Minimum size
Prohibit/regulate exploitation They are not supposed to be exploited, they are supposed to be saved
What are the priorities or concerns in setting up a protected area?
Diversity important to South Africa. There are some places that have a large diversity that is attractive to preserve
Distinctiveness How distinctive is the place your are looking t? If it only has local species, that may be a high) piority
Endangerment-Ethiopian wolevs-live n the mountain
Often have high priorities
In general, what is the abundance of different size protected areas around the world?
Number and area of sites by area classes -most areas are pretty small. A few giant ones cover a lot of areas. Lots of tiny ones
What is Gap Analysis and how does it help choose sites for protected areas?
Gap Analysis Determine where biodiversity is highest where there is no protection. Are there places with lots of biodiversity that we should protect?- Use GIS
Use of Gap Analysis and GIS
Suggest potential sites for searches
Allow predictions for the future
In designing a park or reserve, be able to choose between good and bad options with respect to size, number, distribution, connectivity, and shape.
Size-how big can or should it be. Trophic level-how many animals does it need to support
Configuration how is it configured-has to do with connectivity and different choices of parks you might have. Large areas are better than several small, better if closer together, better with corridors, better if round(less edge is better in most cases)
Shape what shape should it be-shape with less edge is best
How are biosphere reserves different from national parks?
UNESCO the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization
Save all habitats and the plants and animals
Representativeness vs. uniqueness-cool unique places, idea is to protect places representative of all ecosystems on earth
May include all types of IUCN protected areas
Who should pay the costs of setting up and maintaining biosphere reserves? Why?
Home country?-don't have the money
What was the main justification for setting up the Sierra de Manantlan Biosphere Reserve?
Big place. In a mountainous area, tropical deciduous forest-pine, oak.
Perennial maize, or corn species, teosinte-Found "teosinte"-a corn plant, perennial, don't have to keep replanting and it is resistant to the 7 major domestic corn diseases. Brought attention to the area. The area now has high biodiversity.
If you, as the newly appointed Director, were charged with setting up a management organization for developing a new Biosphere Reserve, but had only enough funding for 7 of the programs/divisions that were identified in class, which programs would you establish and why?
1. Ethnoecology-interactions between people that live there and resources that are there, how some become rarer, dangered and disappeared, what kinds of exotics are there, how people use those resources
2. Environmental Education-convince the people that this is a good idea to have the government come oversee the protection and permit the use of these resources. Tell the people they need to think in the long term
3. Ecodevelopment-interact with resources in a way that can make people's lives better and still be sustainable, don't just use up all the resources
4. Forestry-logging industry
5. Soils and Watersheds-important for agriculture, need to understand where water comes from
6. Flora-trees, etc. For construction materials, food, understanding the plants
7. Zea diploperennis-the corn plant. It is the unique resource in this particular reserve
8. Fauna-animals-food, pollinators, insects, vertebrates, how do they interact
9. Cartography and Photo-interpretation-map making, resources, accessibility
10. Information and Data Processing-getting the message out to the rest of the world
11. Publicity-the wider public
12. Public relations-people's legal rights
13. Field Station Management coordination
14. Administration-who's in charge
How do species or populations become endangered?
a combination of these causes.
Habitat destruction (86 % of endangered species)
-direct or indirect killing
-elimination of "competing" predator species-species that compete with humans
What specific characteristics make species vulnerable to extinction?
Narrow geographical range -only live in particular places
Habitat specialists-depend upon certain features of the environment
Small population sizes
Clumped population distribution
Low rates of population increase
Who saves endangered species?
-laws (Endangered Species act)
State governments and agencies-can make their own laws/rules to benefit species of the state
Other private conservation organizations -do work on their own lands or on private lands convincing people to carry out the right management option
What are the general criteria for evaluating status of endangered species?
population status-size, trend
-habitat-how much habitat and what is distribution?
-status of protected habitats
-potential for growth
-uniqueness-special niche, ability to hybridize
What are the approaches to saving endangered species?
Single species approach-
Standard methods in the wild-abundance, protect habitat, make specific recommendations that relate to that species
Captive propagation (zoos) -raise them in zoos and put them back into the wild. Problem because it isn't comprehensively helpful
Ecosystem/Landscape approach-large scale conservation
-manahe landscapes/reserves-for multiple species
"Umbrella" species approach-a combination of captive propagation and ecosystem approach-save one species and save other species as well-will be protecting other parts of the ecosystem and doing overall good. "BY SAVING ONE SPECIES WE ARE GOING TO SAVE THEM ALL"
Know the recovery story for black-footed ferrets.
prairie dog control campaigns -prairie dogs were seen as competitors. Black footed ferrets were captured as furbearers. The main black-footed decline came about because of prairie dog campaigns. They competed for grass. People didn't pay attention to the black footed ferret decline until 1930s.
in 1964-72, only 11 ferret litters. Were not known to live anywhere else
9 ferrets were taken into captivity from 1971 to 1973 for captive breeding . 9 ferrets were taking into captivity from 1971 to 73 for captive breeding. Although litters were born there, no young were successfully raised. The last captive ferrets died in 1978.
A dog found a dead black footed ferret in 1981 in Wyoming-after they were declared extinct
Ferreets rediscovered in prairie dog complexes in 81. That population remained healthy.
In 1985-sylvatic plagu e-deadly disease confirmed in prairie dogs in WY. In addition, reports of a substantial decrease in the number of ferrets were detected. Then, discovery of canine distemper in the ferrets themselves.
Emergency management-1985, 6 ferrets were captured to begin captive breeding, 2 of them rbought the virus and all 6 ferrets died.
By decmeber 1985, only 10 ferrets were known to exist, 6 in captivity and 4 in WY. The net yr only 2 litters were produced. Allr emaining ferrets were removed from the wild, resulting in a captive pop of 18 ferrets
Since 1987, there have been 4000 ferrets bred in captivity, 1400 have been released, 19 sites in U.S. where they have been introduced. Currently only 4 self-sustaining populations-don't have to augment the new population every year with new ferrets.
South Dakota- 250 ferrets, 100 wild kits born-some of which were released elsewhere
Goal: 10 self-sustaining populations. 1500 breeding animals
Only live in grasslands
Live there: herbivoers-prairie dogs, bison, other species
Prairie dogs are good at seeing predators from far away-stand up and look out for them
Carnivores: black footed ferrets, other species
Need ferrets to keep prairie dog numbers down because they are the only carnivores that can go into the tunnels and get them
Why were zoos initially established?
Original purpose of zoos Zoological gardens-used to provide entertainment. People had collections of weird animals
Entertainment Private and public-people hadn't seen animals such as elephants and camels before
Make money-charge admission, and get animals to reproduce in captivity and sell them
What have been some problems with zoos in the past? What about today?
Past problems with zoos
Inadequate facilities Can't provide animals with natural habitats-keeping a bear in a cement, iron-barred box. Mental and physical problems with animals, poor reproduction
Poor public perception of performing animals. Dancing bears, bears riding bicycles, seeing them as oddities that do funny stuff. Problem because it has no real relation to the wild, just for entertainment
Poor scientific knowledge base very few place where animals have actually sexually reproduced
Poor education centers sometimes wrong background information is given
Relatively few endangered species are currently being held in zoos
Which species to save? How do you pick? Limited space..must use priorities
Money not enough. Collapse of soviet union, first thing to go was zoos
Upkeep - animals cost a lot to take care of
Facilities - useful, pleasing enclosures useful closuers that are good for animals and pleasing to public
Conservation Action-do something other than just holding animals
How do zoos market themselves today (i.e., what do they want the public to perceive them as)?
How do zoos contribute to global biodiversity?
1. Serve as refugia -the last place where species exist, sometimes species are extinct in wild but have species in zoos-California Condor (bird)
2. Provide propagules for repopulation raise animals more successfully than they might be raised in the wild-better reproduction.
3. Reinforce natural populations reinforcement from captive populations
4. Maintain repositories of sperm and eggs zoos store sperm and eggs; freeze them then thaw them when needed. Cutting edge, essential for some species
5. Conduct research behavior, food preference, species interactions
6. Educate the public emphasize the importance of conservation-so many people don't know anything about wild animals, zoos may be the only place they are able to learn about them
Are most endangered species currently being held in zoos?
What do you need to consider when managing captive populations?
How much space do you have?
How much to you need?-for animals and the public-want to see places that don't look depressing
What kind of space is cost-effective?
Fix their original habitat
What will happen if the climate keeps on changing?
Temperatures will rise 5-18 degrees during the next 100 years.
Evaporation will increase
Rainfall will decrease
Lakes and wetlands will dry up/recede
Water temperatures will rise
Droughts, hurricanes, floods, fires MORE
Climate in MA will end up being like the current climate in South Carolina in the next 100 years
What are the primary and secondary ecological effects of climate change?
Primary Ecological Effects
Changes beyond tolerable thresholds
No adaptive capacity to migrate
Life-Stage Habitat Loss
Conditions for essential life-stage junctures intolerable
Conditions for other life stages irrelevant
May never be able to achieve adult status-no adaptations to allow them to continue
Altered Biological Events
Shifts in the timing of budding, spawning, or migration
What if all species not in synch?-if pollinators are behind, etc.
Secondary Ecological Effects
Increased Stress-as things change-more susceptible to disease, parasitism, predation etc.
Successful Adaptive Migration -may disrupt predator-prey or other ecological conditions-will gain and lose species from systems because of migrations according to climate
Opportunistic Invasion -erosion of barriers-an indirect effect
How will changes in human adaptation to climate change affect wildlife?
Direct Habitat Conversion
-Human migration to places where it is more tolerable to live
-Land use conversion
Degraded Ecological Conditions
-New or amplified pollution, noise, water diversions
-Climate change mitigation-plant forests, put up ocean barriers
-Non-native species to local ecosystems
What might happen to Peary Caribou in the Arctic?
Food abundance-when things warm up
Warmer=more biomass produced because of longer growing season
If 50 % increase over the next 100 years
More crusting of snow (warmer in winter)
If 30 % over the next 100 years
What might happen to cold-blooded vertebrates in the tropics?
Body temperature regulation-not internally regulated
If it is
Migrate or evolve?
Narrow tolerance range-thermal specialists
Lots of them (high diversity)
Same percent of species who can adapt and species who can't-more species lost
Why will the following activities involve policy debates:
Identification of climate-threatened species?
Design of conservation and recovery initiatives?
Identifying Climate-threatened Species
How to use the available science?
Regulating Non-climate Effects To Protect Climate
Futile? -fooling around with worthless projects that aren't helpful in the long run. Saving a mallard duck doesn't help mallard populations while saving an endangered pigeon may be crucial to the population
Designing Conservation and Recovery Initiatives
Based on what?-we don't know what long term effects of any mitiation will be. Ned to know the limitations of our knowledge
Where do you put your efforts? What is the ecosystem?
Dealing with the Doomed
Species that are doomed if we don't do anything
Assisted migration? Relocate them in the wild to help them out. Set up new systems
MOST OF WHAT WE DO IN WILDLIFE CONSERVATION DEALS WITH CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES
The peregrine falcon is an example of how urban environments can play an important role in protecting or even restoring some wildlife populations, true or false?
True, peregrine falcones often sat on the ledges of high buildings and eat pigeons. When returned to the wild, they preferred cities because of the available prey there.
What are two problems often associated with urban deer?
become pretty sedentary because of fences, busy streets and other artificial barriers
Aside from the crowding of humans, what other factors work against wildlife in urban settings?
the monoculture created by humans
*lack of sufficient vegetation (quality + quantity)
*environmental uniformity-structures + pavement
What are some examples of 'backyard management'?
rock or log piles
artificial rabbit burrows
What are four types of structures that can be built in urban settings to attract wildlife?
artificial rabbit burrows
What are some of the risks associated with feeding stations?
the attraction of predators to concentrations of prey
flying into windows
disease-contaminate the seeds with fecal matter
The use of bells or declawing domestic cats has significantly reduces their hunting prowess, true or false?
FALSE-keeping them inside is the only solution
What were the methods used to control the sacred ibis in Australia? Which methods failed and which succeeded?
initial attempts at relocating birds to a site failed when most of them returned. Other management strategies were employed, including restricting the availability of food both inside and outside the sanctuary, harassing ibis nesting at undesirable sites, removing nests and eggs, disrupting roosting ibis with spotlights, and substituting artificial eggs in active nests. these measures brought an immediate response. breeding pop dropped from 900 to 100 birds
What are some of the effect of fire ants on wildlife and why are polygynous colonies a much greater threat?
Fire ants kill hatchling bird chicks (bobwhites)
fire ants reduce the abundance of invertebrate foods seasonally required by bobwhites
they also reduce recruitment in deer populations-attacked eyes and mouth of newborns
How was an exotic species of opuntia cactus controlled using biological controls in Australia?
the rapid spread of the cactus was controlled by using moths, whose larvae largely damaged the plants
What's another example of biological control?
european rabbits in Australia were controlled by host-specific diseases, first myxomatosis, and more recently, rabbit hemorrhagic disease
Most exotic species are introduced by humans. What is one exception to that here in the U.S.?
In NW North America, 6 goats and their 4 offspring escaped from South Dakota and eventually established a population of 300 animals. a hunting season was created for them
What are some arguments for exotic game?
Exotics fill vacant niches
May be places where native game is not plentiful enough for hunters
Might replace those native animals that have not coped well with environmental changes
Ranchers appreciate exotic game and so do the hunters paying for such trophies
Why is hybridization a concern with exotic species?
if an exotic is introduced into a foreign fauna, its genetic compatibility with a local but related species still may function, and high rates of hybridization may result. the native species' genetics may become so swamped by the exotic because there are so many hybrids that are created
What are some examples of competition between exotic species and native species?
tree cavities or breeding sites
How were nutria introduced into the U.S., what problems are they causing and what attempts have been made to control them?
brought for commercial fur farming from Argentina. they were sold for farming, but they escaped or were released soon afterward and established wild populations virtually everywhere; presently existing in 15 states.
they rapidly destroy wetland vegetation, competing with muskrats and waterfowl
Poison was used to try to control them, baits treated with zinc phosphide were used. trying to find a way to biologically control them
Give some examples of how animals may be worth more in tourist dollars than in hunter dollars.
About $500 million is spent on nonconsumptive use of wildlife, primarily in appreciation of nongame birds-spent on bird seed, bird field guides, birdhouses, feeders, binoculars.
$300 million is spent by duck hunters seeking a consumptive use of waterfowl resources (
What is 'Teaming with Wildlife' and what are the three target areas it hopes to fund?
How do 'checkoffs' provide funding for wildlife?
there is a checkoff option in state income tax forms. taxpayers could voluntarily contribute a part of their tax refund for nongame management by marking the appropriate box
What are vulture restaurants, why are they operated and what role do they play in nongame management?
Vulture restaurants are sites artificially supplied with large animal carcasses. They provide the birds with safe and available food
Why: Because some African cultures believe cetain body parts of vultures possess medicinal or magical properties, livestock carcasses are sometimes poisoned as a means of obtaining birds. In other areas, food may be hard to get to and scarce, so the restaurants, which are located in open areas receive a lot of use
provide the vultures with calcium
tourism and conservation opportunities
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) found that endangered species usually reach critically low numbers because of five main factors. What are those factors?
Natural causes-natural death of species or evolution into new forms
Hunting-unregulated hunting causing extinction
Introduced predators-introduction of exotic species plays havoc with natural systems
Nonpredatory exotics-Nonpredatory exotics are often the agents of competition and disease
Habitat modification-habitat destruction and disturbance destroy wildlife
Most endangered species are r-selected, true or false?
False, most GAME species are r-selected, meaning that they have high intrinsic rates of population growth
Endangered species are often K-selected meaning that they have adapted an evolutionary strategy that favors lower rates of population growth with a higher efficiency in their use of resources. also are more specialized
How were whooping cranes brought back from the brink of extinction?
Their coastal habitat was protected where they spend their winters. Then, a captive breeding program was initiated using eggs collected from the wild population and the few cranes held in zoos, but few birds survived until an age when they could be released.
Then the foster parent program was proposed. whooping cranes' eggs and young would now be raised under sandhill cranes, a related and far more abundant species
Which country has the highest number of tourists visiting for the purpose of viewing wildlife?
Kenya-263,000 visitors arriving annually for wildlife tourism
What are the problems associated with regulated cropping of free-ranging African mammals as noted by Eltringham (1984)?
-opposition from the established meat trade toward competition from the meat of wildlife
-opposition from the meat of wildlife
-low profit margins, largely because of the low monetary value of meat and high costs of meeting hygienic regulations
-lack of local markets
-poor communication with distant markets
-shortfalls in quotas for maximum yields because of the elusiveness and migratory habits of some species, whereas populations of resident species may be too small for an economically worthwhile harvest
-drought and other ecological changes leading to unpredictable trends in animal numbers
How did managers of Pilanesburg Widlife Park in South Africa comprise between strict preservation and consumptive use of wildlife?
The privilege of shooting 5 or 6 rhinos per year was sold to American and German hunters. Other hunters paid money to shoot a rhino with a tranquilizer gun and were photographed beside their drugges trophies
In China, several deer species are close to extinction because they are over-harvested for their velvet antlers, true or false?
What is the 'travel cost method' of determining the value of deer to hunters and how can it be used to compare revenues generated by other land use activities?
The travel cost method has the advantage of describing what hunters actually pay for deer hunting. The estimate is based on travel costs using the price of fuel and the distance the hunters travel. These costs can be compared to annual timber sales because they are mutually exclusive activities and are not competitive. More is spent on deer
Why is the United States one of the prime locations for conserving biodiversity?
-the relatively short period of significant environmental alteration since settlement
-a relatively low human population
-an affluent population, of which an influential segment is sensitive to environmental concerns
-the presence of agencies and academic institutions attuned to the biology and management of wildlife and other natural resources
-the presence of a well trained and motivated cadre of professional biologists and resource managers
-the enactment of relatively strong and effective environmental laws
-the state and federal ownership of wildlife refuges, parks, forests, and other large areas of land
How much of the United States is under federal ownership?
More than 1/3 is held in federal ownership, mostly under environmental peeps
What does Figure 21-1 illustrate about conservation biology?
IT shows that biological diversity-the chief concern of conservation biology-operates at 3 levels; genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity
What is 'island biogeography'?
Is composed of the species-area relationship-that larger sites contain more species than smaller locations.
Larger sites are 1-more likely to be colonized by new species and 2-less likely to experience extinctions in their biota
Distance to mainland also affects the diversity
What are some of the shortcomings of this theory? (island biogeography)
Equilibrium results from the counterbalancing forces of colonization and extinction
- all species are treated equally as units (but really, some species are more competitive than others)
-assumption that the environment on an island remains constant throughout the processes of colonization an extinction
What does the term 'minimum viable populations' mean and what are some things that should be included in the definition to make it more useful?
minimum viable populations is like the threshold number for a species; the minimum number a population can have to ensure the presence of its populations....controversial because each location differs
Meffe et al. (1993) suggest that conservation biologists can be involved in the issue of human population growth -what are two ways they suggest?
Conservation biologists can respond in two ways:
-seek more interactions with demographers, sociologists, and epidemiologists
-strongly advocate controlling human populations
What are the benefits and drawbacks of corridors for wildlife?
Plants and animals may travel between islands, thereby
-preventing inbreeding depression by maintaining gene flow between various segments of a larger population
-enhancing species richness in keeping with the ideas of island biogeography
-corridors offset the negative consequences of fragmented habitats
-introduction of pathogens, predators, or exotic species
What has been the genetic status of Florida panthers and what are the apparent consequences?
the remaining population is no more than 50 individuals, they have lower semen volume, more abnormal sperm, and reduced sperm motility. the rate of having only one testicle is higher than in other subspecies
8 mountain lions representing another subspecies were released in Florida to restore genetic diversity, only females were introduced to avoid disputes with males in the Florida population
Why are Isle Royale wolves a kind of "exception to the rule" concerning inbreeding?
The wolves on Isle Royale had low genetic variability and probably descended from a single female
Thanks to recent technological advances, the world's resources can now support a U.S.-level lifestyle for all humans, true or false?
FALSE-no way can we supply ourselves with enough food and energy
How has our energy consumption changed over time if we were to compare ourselves to the energy requirements of some animals?
Each new generation of humans uses more energy than its predecessor. In prehistoric times, with 3 million hunter gatherers, the energy used by a human coincided with that of a dolphin, whereas now each person in the U.S. consumes the energy equivalent to that used by a large whale
Why should wildlife managers take part in resolving the issue of human population growth?
Wildlife managers understand the fundamental relationships between births and deaths, immigration and emigration, and the same principles affect human populations
Because a continuously expanding human population steadily erodes the quantity and quality of land and water resources available for wildlife, questions about the abundance of wildlife and wildlife habitat offer wildlife biologists a prime opportunity to address the overarching issue of human population ecology