28 terms

Computer Security and Privacy

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Active Content
A small program that gets installed on a computer while browsing the Internet. The basic function of active content is to provide an interactive Internet experience through videos and toolbars. Sometimes, active content is used to gain unauthorized access to a computer, and then damage the data stored on it or install malicious software on it.
Back Up
The act or instance of making a duplicate copy of a program, a disk, or data. The duplicate copy is called a backup.
Cache Memory
Temporary memory on your computer that is sometimes used to store local copies of files opened when you browse the Internet.
Computer Privacy
Keeping a user's data, including personal files and e-mail messages, such that the data is not accessible by anyone without appropriate permission
Computer Security
The protection of a computer system and its data from accidental or intentional loss and tampering.
Cookie
A small file on a computer that is created when a user visits a Web site. A Web site uses cookies to identify users who visit the site, and also track the preferences of the users.
Copyright
A method of protecting the rights of an originator of a creative work, such as text, piece of music, painting, or computer program, through law.
Decryption
The process of reconverting the encrypted data into a readable and usable form.
Encryption
The process of converting data into an unreadable and unusable form. Encryption is done to prevent unauthorized access of data, especially during data transmission over the Internet.
Firewall
A filter that blocks unreliable and unauthorized information from the Internet before it reaches your computer or a private network. It provides additional protection against threats such as hackers and viruses. A firewall also helps to ensure computer privacy by restricting external access by any unauthorized user.
Hacker
A person who uses computer expertise to gain unauthorized access to a computer, and then misuses or tampers the programs and data stored on the computer.
Intellectual Property
Any information available on the Internet is an intellectual property, which is legally owned by the person who created it. The owner of an intellectual property has the exclusive rights to control the use of this information.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
A company that provides Internet connectivity to individuals, businesses, and organizations.
Libel
Written defamation that has been published. Libel is a punishable offense.
Online Predator
An individual who develops contact with Internet users, through chat rooms, online forums, or e-mail, to exploit them financially or involve them in dangerous relationships.
Password
A unique string of characters that a user types in as an identification code. It is a security measure used to restrict access to computer systems and sensitive files.
Phishing
The act of extracting personal information, such as passwords and credit card details, from computer users and then use the information for malicious purposes.
Plagiarism
The act of copying someone's work and using it as if it is your own work, without mentioning the source.
Power Surge
A sudden increase in line voltage, which may lead to the damage of electronic devices, such as computers.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
An Internet security protocol that ensures secure data communication by encrypting the information transmitted. The SSL protocol certifies that a Web site is genuine and ensures that the data provided to the site is not misused.
Slander
Verbal defamation. Slander is a punishable offense.
Software Piracy
Unauthorized copying of copyrighted software without obtaining the license or permission of its copyright owner is software piracy.
Spam
An irrelevant and unsolicited e-mail message sent by an unknown sender. A spam is sent to distribute a message to many recipients at one time.
Spyware
A computer program that is installed on your computer without your knowledge. Spyware can secretly send out information about your Web browsing habits or other personal details to another computer through the network.
Trojan Horse
A destructive computer program disguised as a game, utility, or software. When run, a Trojan horse does something harmful to the computer system while appearing to do something useful.
Username
The name by which a user is identified to a computer system or network. To access a computer protected by username and password, a user needs to enter the correct combination of username and password.
Virus
A computer program that is designed to cause malfunctioning of a computer or damage the data stored on the computer.
Worm
A computer program that propagates itself across computers, usually by creating copies of itself in each computer's memory. A worm might duplicate itself in one computer so often that it causes the computer to crash.