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130 terms

Chapter 14/ Musculoskeletal System

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periosteum
outermost layer of the bone, made of fibrous tissue
compact bone
dense, hard layer of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
cancellous (spongy) bone
contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone
endosteum
membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
diaphysis
shaft of the long bone
epiphysis
end of each long bone
bone marrow
material found in the cavities of bones
red marrow
thick, blood like material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of blood cell formation
yellow marrow
soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones
articular cartilage
smooth layer of gristle covering the contacting surface of joints
meniscus
crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee
intervertebral disk
cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine
pubic symphysis
cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones fuse together
synovia
fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities
bursa
fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another
ligament
flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint
tendon
band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
aponeruosis
strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone
skeletal muscles (striated)
attached to bones by tendons; voluntary muscles
smooth muscles (unstriated)
located in internal organs such as the digestive tract; involuntary muscles
cardiac muscle (myocardium)
forms the wall of the heart
abduction
movement of drawing away from the middle
adduction
movement of drawing toward the middle
inversion
turning inward
eversion
turning outward
extension
movement in which a limb is placed in a straight postion
flexion
movement in which a limb is bent
pronation
movement that turns the palms up
supination
movement that turns the palms down
rotation
turning around its own axis
carp/o
carpals
clavic/o
clavicle
clavicul/o
clavicle
cost/o
rib
crani/o
cranium
femor/o
femur
fibul/o
fibula
humer/o
humerous
ili/o
ilium
ischi/o
ischium
lumb/o
loin/lumbar region of spine
mandibul/o
mandible
maxill/o
maxilla
pelv/o
pelvis
pelv/i
pelvis
phalang/o
phalanges
pub/o
pubis
rachi/o
spine
radi/o
radius
sacr/o
sacrum
scapul/o
scapula
spondyl/o
vertebra
vertebr/o
vertebra
stern/o
sternum
tars/o
tarsal
tibi/o
tibia
uln/o
ulna
aponeur/o
aponeurosis
arthr/o
joint
burs/o
bursa
chondr/o
cartilage
disk/o
intervertebral disk
menisc/o
meniscus
synovi/o
synovia, synovial membrane
ten/o
tendon
tend/o
tendon
tendin/o
tendon
ankyl/o
crooked, stiff, bent
kinesi/o
movement, motion
kyph/o
hump
lamin/o
lamina (thin flat plate or layer)
lord/o
bent forward
myel/o
bone marrow
my/o
muscle
myos/o
muscle
oste/o
bone
petr/o
stone
scoli/o
crooked, curved
inter-
between
supra-
above
sym-
together, joined
syn-
together, joined
-asthenia
weakness
-clasia
break
-clasis
break
-clast
break
-desis
surgical fixation, fusion
-physis
growth
-schisis
split, fissure
ankylosing spondylitis
form of arthritis that first affects the spine & caused a forward bend of the spine
bunion
abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe. Often hereditary or caused by bad shoes
carpal tunnel syndrome
common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve
Colles fracture
type of wrist fracture. The radius is fractured at the lower end, the distal fragment is displaced backward.
exostosis
abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone (spur)
fracture
broken bone
gout
disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes crystal to be deposited in the joints, esp. that of the big toe
herniated disk
rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage which allows the contents to protrude through it. Also called slipped disk, ruptured disk, herniated intervertebral disk or herniated nucleus pulposus
Lyme disease
infection caused by a bacterial carried by deer ticks
muscular dystrophy
group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscle and weakness
myasthenia gravis
chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness and thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses nerves to muscle cells
osteoporosis
abnormal loss of bone density
rheumatoid arthritis
chronic systemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue throughout the body
spinal stenosis
narrowing of the spinal canal with compression of nerve roots
spondylolisthesis
forward slipping of one vertebra over another
chiropodist
specialist in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the foot
podiatrist
specialist in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the foot
chiropractic
system of therapy that consists of manipulation of the vertebral column
chiropractor
specialist in chiropractic
crepitus
crackling sound heard when two bones rub against each orther
orthopedics
branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of disease and abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system
orthopedics
branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system
orthopedist
physician who specializes in orthopedics
orthotics
making and fitting of orthopedic appliances
orthotist
person who specializes in orthotics
osteopath
physician who specializes in osteopathy
osteopathy
system of medicine that uses the usual forms of diagnosis and treatment but places greater emphasis on the whole picture
prosthesis
artificial substitute for a missing body part
C1-C7
cervical vertebrae
CTS
carpal tunnel syndrome
EMG
electromyogram
fx
fracture
HNP
herniated nucleus pulposus
L1-L5
lumbar vertebrae
MD
muscular dystrophy
MG
myasthenia gravis
OA
osteoarthritis
ortho
orthopedics
RA
rheumatoid arthritis
T1-T12
thoracic vertebrae
THA
total hip arthroplasty