Anatomy, Physiology and Science of Speech

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

anatomy
study of the structure of an organism
gross anatomy
study of the structure of an organism without the use of a microscope
developmental anatomy
study of the structures in growth and development from conception to adulthood
physiology
study of the function of an organism
respiratory physiology
study of the processes involved in breathing
phonatory physiology
study of function in phonation
cytology
study of the structure and function of cells
myology
study of the structure and function of muscles
histology
microscopic study of the structure and function of cells and tissues
osteology
study of the structure and function of bones
neurology
study of the structure and function of neurons
teratogens
agents that affect and/or interrupt the normal growth and/or development of a fetus (teratogenesis). Most severe effects seen when exposure is at critical period
thorax
chest
abdomen
stomach
dorsal torso
back
pelvis
hip bone area
cranial skull
houses the brain
facial skull
houses oral, nasal and pharyngeal cavities and structures
upper extremities
shoulder to arm to hand
lower extremities
thigh to calf to foot
cranial cavity
houses brain
vertebral canal
houses spinal cord
thoracic cavity
houses lungs
pericardial cavity
houses heart
abdominal
houses digestive system structures
the anatomical position
standing with arms, hands, and palms facing forward
axial skeleton
spinal column is the axis, from head to trunk
appendicular skeleton
consists of upper and lower limbs
neuraxis
T-formation of the brain and spinal cord
transverse section
results in upper and lower parts
saggital section
results in left and right parts
coronal section
results in front and back parts
transverse plane
upper and lower
saggital plane
left and right
coronal plane
front and back
anteriorly/ventrally
toward the front
posteriorly/dorsally
toward the back
medially
toward midline
laterally
toward the side
rostrally/superiorly/cranially
toward the head
inferior/caudally
toward the ground
proximally
toward a point of attachment
distally
away from midline
abducting
moving apart
adducting
coming together
flexion
bending at a joint
extension
pulling ends apart
hyperextension
extreme/over extension
plantar
sole of foot
palmar
palm of hand
superior
above
inferior
below
prone
on the belly
supine
on the back
epithelial tissue
outer layer of skin
lining of most cavities and connective tubes
comprised of flat cells
tightly packed and protective
can be secretory or covered in cilia
cilia: hairlike projections that are motile
connective tissue
supports and protects the body
composed of the matrix (intercellular material)
different types of connective tissue
-Areolar: loose and thin or packed with fat (adipose tissue)
-White fibrous connective tissue and yellow elastic tissue: found in ligaments, tendons and cartilage (strong and elastic)
-blood: fluid potion is called plasma
-bone: highly dense and hardest
muscle tissue
contractile when stimulated
three basic types: striated, smooth, cardiac
striated muscle
striped or streaked
moves skeletal structures
voluntary movements
smooth muscle
sheetlike
found in digestive tract and blood vessels
autonomic movements
cardiac muscle
net-like interconnections
found in the heart
autonomic movements
nervous tissue
consists of neurons of various types
highly specialized cells that are found in different areas of the nervous system
highly specialized cells that communicate (neuron to neuron, neuron to muscle, sensory receptor to another neural structure)
fascia
sheetlike structures that surrounds organs
can be dense or filmy, thick or thin
ligaments
means binding
visceral ligaments bind organs or hold structures in place
skeletal ligaments bind bone to bone
tendons
attach muscle to bone or cartilage
sheetlike tendons that are very dense are called aponeurosis
abducting
moving apart
adducting
coming together
flexion
bending at a joint
abducting
...