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60 terms

Chapter 8: Political Geography

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Balance
of Power a distribution of power among nations to prevent any one nation from becoming too powerful
Boundary
invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
City-state
sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.
Colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Colony
A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
Compact
State A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Elongated
State A state with a long, narrow shape.
Federal
State An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Fragmented
State A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
Frontier
A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
Gerrymandering
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Imperialism
Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.
Landlocked
state A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Microstate
A state that encompasses a very small land area.
Perforated
state a state that completely surrounds another one
Prorupted
State an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
Sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
State
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Unitary
State An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
Geopolitics
study of the government and its policies as affected by physical geography
Organic
Theory concieved of a state as a living organism that must require new territories into order to thrive
Sea
Power a nation that controls the ocean controls the international politics
Heartland
Theory Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
Rimland
Theory Nicholas Spykman's Theory that the domination of the costal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest
Domino
Theory the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Territory
the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state
Nation
a politically organized body of people under a single government
State
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Nation-state
state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Multi-ethnic
State A state that contains more than one ethnicity
Multinational
state State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Race
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
Sovereignity
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
Centripetal
Forces Forces that bond a country together.
Centrifugal
Forces forces that tend to divide a country.
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Federal
State An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Unitary
State An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
Confederation
a joining of several groups for a common purpose
Decolonization
the action of changing from colonial to independent status
International
Organization an alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination
Supranational
Organization Alliance of three or more states for the mutual benefits of all involved.
Self-determination
concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Devolution
the process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
Exclave
A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state.
Enclave
A piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is not a part.
Geometric
Boundary political boundary defined and delimited as a straight line or an arc
Physical-Political
natural boundary is just like rivers, mountains, or forest that separate nations by geographic objects. A political boundary is the limiting lines of jurisdictional authority for the various levels of government
Cultural-Political
Boundary straight lines that serve as political boundaries that are unrelated to physical and /or cultural differences
Antecedent
Boundary boundary that was created before the present day cultural landscape developed
Subsequent
Boundary a boundary that developed with the evolution of the cultural landscape and is adjusted as the cultural landscape changes...
Superimposed
Boundary A boundary line placed over and ignoring an existing cultural pattern.
Relict
Boundary boundary that ceased to function but whose imprint on the cultural landscape can still be detected...
Forward
Capital capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.
Irredentism
A policy of cultural and political expansion into a neighboring state by a state whose nationals live in the neighboring state
Shatterbelt
A large, strategically located region that is occupied by a number of conflicting states and is caught between the conflicting interests of adjoining Great Powers; a zone of chronic political splintering and facturing.
Balkanization
The process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
Apartheid
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Ethnic
cleansing Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region