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A & P Chapter 9 &10 Quiz
Donald C. Rizzo-(author) Study guide for chapter 9 & 10 quiz
1.) (true/false) When the inside of a cell is negatively charged while the outside of the cell is positively charged electroncally, it is known as resting potential.
2.) (true/false) Calcium ions have a greater concentration inside the resting muscle cell.
3.) (true/false) The source of energy for muscle contraction is adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules.
False (40 to 50%)
4.) (true/false) Muscles make up about 10% of a persons body weight.
5.) (true/false) When the contraction of a skeletal muscle is studied in the laboratory by applying an electrical charge to the muscle, the contraction is called a muscle twitch.
6.) (true/false) The "all-or-nothing law" means that a muscle contraction either occurs or it does not.
7.) (true/false) Muscles that bend a limb at a joint are called flexors.
False (4 heads, knee)
8.) (true/false) The quadriceps femoris muscle consists of two parts that extend the foot.
9.) (true/false) Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles.
10.) (true/false) All of the muscle cells or fibers innervated by the same motor neuron are called a motor unit.
11.) (true/false) Muscles can be named according to their action, shape, origin and insertion, location or the direction of their fibers.
12.) (true/false) Rotator muscles revolve a limb around an axis.
False (A line constant/Z line moves)
13.) (true/false) During muscle contraction, the width of the Z lines remain constant.
14.) (true/false) Phosphocreatine is found only in muscle and provides a slow, sustained source of high energy for muscle contraction.
15.) (true/false) Mature skeletal or striated muscle cells are the longest and most slender muscle fibers.
16.) (true/false) The light bands are made of the thin filaments of the protein actin.
False (insert on eyeball)
17.) (true/false) The muscles that move the eyes insert on bone.
18.) (true/false) A single long extension of the nerve cell body that transmits the nerve impulse away from the cell body is called an axon.
19.) (true/false) The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system stimulates digestion, urination and defecation and restores or slows down other activities.
20.) (true/false) Schwann Cells are located only in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and make up the neurilemma and myelin sheath.
21.) (true/false) Bipolar neurons have one dendrite and one axon.
22.) (true/false) The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system uses epinephrine as a neurotransmitter.
True (Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system)
23.) (true/false) The nervous system can be grouped into two major categories.
24.) (true/false) During depolarization K+ ions rush in, causing a change inside the nerve membrane from negative to positive.
25.) (true/false) The nervous system shares in the maintenance of homeostasis.
26.) (true/false) Numerous mitochondria and neurofibrils are in the axon.
False (Immediatly breaks down Acetylcholine)
27.) (true/false) Acetylcholinesterase participates in the construction of acetylcholine.
28.) Inflammation of a tendon is known as ____(c)______.
29.) The rapid, uncontrolled contraction of individual cells in the heart, resulting in the hearts inability to pump blood properly is known as _____(a)_______.
30.) An increase in the bulk of muscle cells that occurs as a result of exercise is known as ____(b)_______.
31.) Spastic and painful contractions of muscles that occur because of an irritaion within the muscles are known as ____(b)_______.
32.) A decrease in muscle bulk or a "wasting away of the muscle," due to lack of exercise is called ____(a)________.
33.) An inherited muscular disorder in which the muscle tissue degenerates over time, resulting in complete helplessness, is known as ____(d)______.
34.) A condition in which a muscle shortens its length in the resting state and remains that way is known as _______(a)_______.
35.) Another name for chewing is ___(b)_______.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
36.) Smooth and cardiac muscle is under the control of the ______(a)_______.
37.) Muscles that assist the prime mover muscles in performing movement are called ____(b)________.
38.) Another name for muscle pain is _____(C)_______.
39.) Inflammation of muscular tissue is known as _____(a)_______.
40.) Another name for a wide, flat tendon is ______(a)_______.
41.) The more fixed attachment of muslce that serves as a basis for the action is the ____(b)_______.
42.) A condition usually beginning with the facial muscles and characterized by the easy tiring of muscles or muscle weakness is known as ____(c)__________.
43.) the muscle that raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the skin of the forehead is the _____(b)________.
44.) The muscle that compresses the cheeks is the ___(c)_____.
Masseter (blue) (& temporalis(red))
45.) The muscle that closes the jaw is the ____(a)______.
46.) The muscle that raises the eye is the ______(d)_______.
47.) The muscle that abducts the arm and is also the muscle that receives injections that are given in the arm is the ____(d)________.
48.) The muscle responsible for moving the hand so that the palm is facing upward is the ______(b)_______.
49.) The muscles, found between the metacarpals, that cause abduction of the proximal phalanges of the fingers are the ___(a)______.
50.) The main muscle used in breathing is the ____(c)_____.
51.) The muscle that is developed when we do sit-ups and try to tighten the abdominal wall is the ___(b)_____.
52.) The neurotransmitter released by the neuromuscular junction is _____(d)________.
53.) During muscle contraction, calcium attaches to ______(d)_______.
54.) Two muscles extend the arm: triceps brachii and the ____(c)______.
55.) The quadriceps muscle consists of ______(c)______ parts.
56.) The short, branched nerve fibers on the nerve cell that are the receptive areas of the neuron are known as the _____(a)________.
57.) A bundle of nerve fibers located inside the central nervous system is called a(n) _____(c)________.
58.) The simplest pathway able to receive a stimulus, enter the central nervous system for immediate interpretation and produce a response is known as a _____(b)________.
59.) The outermost layer of the meninges is the ______(a)______
60.) The middle layer of the meninges, known as the "spider layer" is called the ______(c)_______.
61.) The body's control center and communications network, which directs the functions of the body's organs and systems, is _____(d)_______.
62.) An involuntary reaction to an external stimulus in known as a(n) ____(a)_____.
63.) Star-shaped cells that wrap around neurons for support in the brain and spinal cord and connect neurons to blood vessels are known as _______(c)_________.
64.) Small cells that protect the central nervous system by engulfing and destroying microbes and cellular debris are called ____(d)______.
65.) Sensory neurons that convey information from receptors in the periphery of the body to the brain and spinal cord are also known as ______(a)_______
66.) Transmission of nerve impulses across the synapses is brought about by the secretions of very low concentrations of the chemicals known as ______(a)________
67.) Motor neurons that convey information from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands are called _______(b)_________.
68.) Nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system are called __________(b)________.
69.) The three layers of connective tissue membranes that cover and protect the spinal cord and brain are the _______(c)________.
70.) The area where the terminal branches of an axon are close to, but not touching, the ends of the dendrites of another neuron is called a(n) ______(a)____________.
71.) Neurons that detect stimuli in the environment are known as _____(c)_________.
Central Nervous System
72.) The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord is known as the ____(b)______.
Somatic Nervous System
73.) The part of the nervous system that conducts impulses from the brain and spinal cord to skeletal muscle is known as the ______(d)_______.
74.) A bundle of nerve cells or fibers is known as a(n) _______(d)_______.
75.) Most brain cells are________(a)_______.
76.) The cells that are located only in the peripheral nervous system and make up the neurilemma and myelin sheath are the ___(c)_____.
77.) The cells that form the lining of the cavities in the brain and spinal cord are the _____(b)________.
78.) Neurons that have several dendrites and one axon are known as ____(c)_______.
Nodes of Ranvier
79.) Gaps in the myelin sheath that allow ions to flow freely from extracellular fluids to the axons are known as ____(a)______.
80.) Neurons that have one dendrite and one axon are known as ____(d)____.
81.) Neurons that have only one process extending from the cell body are known as ____(b)______.
82.) Nerve cell bodies that are found outside the central nervous system are generally grouped together to form ___(a)______.
83.) Areas of gray matter in the spinal cord are called ____(c)______.
84.) Nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses in the form of electrochemical changes are known as _____(d)_______.
85.) The neuroglial cells that form the fatty myelin sheath on the neurons of the brain and spinal cord are the ______(a)______.
86.) The cells that line the fluid-filled ventricles of the brain are the ________(b)________.
87.) The term that refers to groups of myelinated axons from many neurons supported by neuroglia is _____(c)_______.
88.) The correct number of pairs of cervical nerves is _____(b)_______.
89.) The correct number of pairs of thoracic nerves is ___(c)_____.
90.) The correct number of pairs of lumbar nerves is ______(b)_______.
91.) The correct number of pairs of coccygeal nerves is _______a)______.
92.) The phrase that means "tough mother" is _______(c)_______.
Resting Membrane Potential
93.) ______(d)_______ is maintained by the soduim-potassium pump.
Increased permeability of Na+ ions
94.) Depolarization of the nerve membrane begins with _______(a)_______.
95.) __________ is a property of muscle whereby a steady or constant state of partial contraction is maintained in muscle.
96.) The _____ is the main muscle involved in breathing.
97.) The _________ is the major muscle that forms the buttocks.
98.) In performing any given movement, such as bending the leg at the knee joint, the muscles performing the actual movement are called the prime movers or _______.
99.) The muscle of the buttocks where injuctions are administered, above and lateral to the gluteus maximus, is known as the __________.
100.) The calf muscle is also known as the __________ muscle.
101.) The soleus muscle ______ flexes the foot.
102.) The type of muscle found in hollow structures such as the intestines, arteries, veins and bladder is ________ muscle.
103.) __________ muscle is found only in the heart and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
104.) _________ attach muscle to bone.
105.) The main muscle that moves the head is the _________________.
106.) Muscles that lower a part of the body are depressors, while muscles that raise a part of the body are known as _______________.
System or Tubules
107.) The muscle action potential is able to pass into the muscle via the T-______________.
108.) A tendon that is wide and flat is called a(n) _____________.
109.) A bundle of muscle fibers is called a(n)________________.
110.) Dark bands of the muscle fibers are made up of thick filaments of the protein _______________.
111.) The cell membrane of the muscle cell (fiber) is called the ______________.
112.) _________________ or sensory neurons are those that convey information from receptors in periphery of the body to the brain and spinal cord.
113.) A(n) _________________ is the simplest pathway able to receive a stimulus, enter the central nervous system for immediate interpretation and produce a response.
114.) Transmission of nerve impulses across synapses is brought about by the secretion of very low concentrations of chemicals called _______________ that move across the gap.
115.) The short, branched nerve fibers on the nerve cell that are the receptive areas of the neuron are called ______________.
116.) __________________or motor neurons are those that convey information from the bain and spinal cord to muscles and glands.
117.) The ______________ is the middle layer of the meninges.
118.) _______________ are small cells that protect the central nervous system by engulfing and destroying microbes and cellular debris.
119.) Nerve Cells are also known as ____________.
120.) During ____________, the membrane potential moves back to resting membrane potential.
121.) The autonomic nervous system uses adrenaline (also called ________________) as a transmitting agent.
122.) The innermost spinal meninx is known as the _________________.
123.) The posterior or ____________ root of a spinal nerve is the sensory root.
124.) In a neuron, protein synthesis occurs in the ___________ bodies, which are a chromatophilic substance.
125.) From the sensory neuron, the impulse may pass through a number of internuncial or _____________ neurons.
126.) (e) Raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the skin of the forehead.
127.) (a) compresses the cheek.
128.) (b) closes the jaw.
129.) (d) rolls eyeball laterally.
130.) (c) draws the head to one side; rotates the scapula.
131.) (e) abducts the arm
132.) (c) flexes and opposes thumb.
Extensor Digitorum Communis
133.) (d) Extends the finger
134.) (b) increases the vertical diameter of the thorax.
135.) (a) flexes and rotates the thigh medially.
136.) (c) Flexes the arm and supinates the hand.
Flexor Pollicis Brevis
137.) (d) flexes the thumb.
138.) (a) flexes the forearm
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
139.) (b) flexes and adducts the wrist
Flexor Digitorum Profundus
140.) (e) Flexes the terminal phalanx of the hand
141.) (c) occurs after death when muscles connot contract
142.) (a) caused by the rapid vibration of the uvula and soft palate.
143.) (b) Also called lockjaw
144.) (d) now rare because of Salk and Sabin vaccines.
145.) (e) inflammation of the connective tissue that is part of the arches of the foot.
146.) (a) attach neurons to their blood vessels.
147.) (b) produce myelin sheath on neurons
148.) (d) nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system.
149.) (c) the middle layer of the meninges
150.) (b) produce myelin sheath on neurons.
151.) (c) Gray matter in the spinal cord.
152.) (a) protective coverings around the brain and spinal cord.
153.) (e) bundles of fibers in the central nervous system.
154.) (b) unmyelinated axons and neuroglia
155.) (d) engulf and destroy microbes.
Autonomic Nervous System
156.) (b) has two divisions, sympathetic and parasympathetic
157.) (e) potassium ions rush out of cell in an attempt to restore resting membrane potential.
158.) (a) bundles of nerve cells.
159.) (c) Sodium ions rush into a cell changing the inside charge from negative to positive.
160.) (d) nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses.
1. Dendrite, 2. Nucleus, 3. Cell Body, 4. Myelin Sheath, 5. Axonal Hillock 6. Axon, 7. Nodes of Ranvier 8. Axon Terminal (synapse occurs between two neurons here)
Label the parts of a neuron.