1.) (true/false) When the inside of a cell is negatively charged while the outside of the cell is positively charged electroncally, it is known as resting potential.
3.) (true/false) The source of energy for muscle contraction is adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules.
5.) (true/false) When the contraction of a skeletal muscle is studied in the laboratory by applying an electrical charge to the muscle, the contraction is called a muscle twitch.
6.) (true/false) The "all-or-nothing law" means that a muscle contraction either occurs or it does not.
False (4 heads, knee)
8.) (true/false) The quadriceps femoris muscle consists of two parts that extend the foot.
10.) (true/false) All of the muscle cells or fibers innervated by the same motor neuron are called a motor unit.
11.) (true/false) Muscles can be named according to their action, shape, origin and insertion, location or the direction of their fibers.
False (A line constant/Z line moves)
13.) (true/false) During muscle contraction, the width of the Z lines remain constant.
14.) (true/false) Phosphocreatine is found only in muscle and provides a slow, sustained source of high energy for muscle contraction.
15.) (true/false) Mature skeletal or striated muscle cells are the longest and most slender muscle fibers.
18.) (true/false) A single long extension of the nerve cell body that transmits the nerve impulse away from the cell body is called an axon.
19.) (true/false) The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system stimulates digestion, urination and defecation and restores or slows down other activities.
20.) (true/false) Schwann Cells are located only in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and make up the neurilemma and myelin sheath.
22.) (true/false) The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system uses epinephrine as a neurotransmitter.
True (Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system)
23.) (true/false) The nervous system can be grouped into two major categories.
24.) (true/false) During depolarization K+ ions rush in, causing a change inside the nerve membrane from negative to positive.
False (Immediatly breaks down Acetylcholine)
27.) (true/false) Acetylcholinesterase participates in the construction of acetylcholine.
29.) The rapid, uncontrolled contraction of individual cells in the heart, resulting in the hearts inability to pump blood properly is known as _____(a)_______.
30.) An increase in the bulk of muscle cells that occurs as a result of exercise is known as ____(b)_______.
31.) Spastic and painful contractions of muscles that occur because of an irritaion within the muscles are known as ____(b)_______.
32.) A decrease in muscle bulk or a "wasting away of the muscle," due to lack of exercise is called ____(a)________.
33.) An inherited muscular disorder in which the muscle tissue degenerates over time, resulting in complete helplessness, is known as ____(d)______.
34.) A condition in which a muscle shortens its length in the resting state and remains that way is known as _______(a)_______.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
36.) Smooth and cardiac muscle is under the control of the ______(a)_______.
37.) Muscles that assist the prime mover muscles in performing movement are called ____(b)________.
41.) The more fixed attachment of muslce that serves as a basis for the action is the ____(b)_______.
42.) A condition usually beginning with the facial muscles and characterized by the easy tiring of muscles or muscle weakness is known as ____(c)__________.
43.) the muscle that raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the skin of the forehead is the _____(b)________.
47.) The muscle that abducts the arm and is also the muscle that receives injections that are given in the arm is the ____(d)________.
48.) The muscle responsible for moving the hand so that the palm is facing upward is the ______(b)_______.
49.) The muscles, found between the metacarpals, that cause abduction of the proximal phalanges of the fingers are the ___(a)______.
51.) The muscle that is developed when we do sit-ups and try to tighten the abdominal wall is the ___(b)_____.
52.) The neurotransmitter released by the neuromuscular junction is _____(d)________.
56.) The short, branched nerve fibers on the nerve cell that are the receptive areas of the neuron are known as the _____(a)________.
57.) A bundle of nerve fibers located inside the central nervous system is called a(n) _____(c)________.
58.) The simplest pathway able to receive a stimulus, enter the central nervous system for immediate interpretation and produce a response is known as a _____(b)________.
60.) The middle layer of the meninges, known as the "spider layer" is called the ______(c)_______.
61.) The body's control center and communications network, which directs the functions of the body's organs and systems, is _____(d)_______.
63.) Star-shaped cells that wrap around neurons for support in the brain and spinal cord and connect neurons to blood vessels are known as _______(c)_________.
64.) Small cells that protect the central nervous system by engulfing and destroying microbes and cellular debris are called ____(d)______.
65.) Sensory neurons that convey information from receptors in the periphery of the body to the brain and spinal cord are also known as ______(a)_______
66.) Transmission of nerve impulses across the synapses is brought about by the secretions of very low concentrations of the chemicals known as ______(a)________
67.) Motor neurons that convey information from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands are called _______(b)_________.
68.) Nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system are called __________(b)________.
69.) The three layers of connective tissue membranes that cover and protect the spinal cord and brain are the _______(c)________.
70.) The area where the terminal branches of an axon are close to, but not touching, the ends of the dendrites of another neuron is called a(n) ______(a)____________.
Central Nervous System
72.) The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord is known as the ____(b)______.
Somatic Nervous System
73.) The part of the nervous system that conducts impulses from the brain and spinal cord to skeletal muscle is known as the ______(d)_______.
76.) The cells that are located only in the peripheral nervous system and make up the neurilemma and myelin sheath are the ___(c)_____.
77.) The cells that form the lining of the cavities in the brain and spinal cord are the _____(b)________.
78.) Neurons that have several dendrites and one axon are known as ____(c)_______.
Nodes of Ranvier
79.) Gaps in the myelin sheath that allow ions to flow freely from extracellular fluids to the axons are known as ____(a)______.
81.) Neurons that have only one process extending from the cell body are known as ____(b)______.
82.) Nerve cell bodies that are found outside the central nervous system are generally grouped together to form ___(a)______.
84.) Nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses in the form of electrochemical changes are known as _____(d)_______.
85.) The neuroglial cells that form the fatty myelin sheath on the neurons of the brain and spinal cord are the ______(a)______.
86.) The cells that line the fluid-filled ventricles of the brain are the ________(b)________.
87.) The term that refers to groups of myelinated axons from many neurons supported by neuroglia is _____(c)_______.
Increased permeability of Na+ ions
94.) Depolarization of the nerve membrane begins with _______(a)_______.
95.) __________ is a property of muscle whereby a steady or constant state of partial contraction is maintained in muscle.
98.) In performing any given movement, such as bending the leg at the knee joint, the muscles performing the actual movement are called the prime movers or _______.
99.) The muscle of the buttocks where injuctions are administered, above and lateral to the gluteus maximus, is known as the __________.
102.) The type of muscle found in hollow structures such as the intestines, arteries, veins and bladder is ________ muscle.
103.) __________ muscle is found only in the heart and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
106.) Muscles that lower a part of the body are depressors, while muscles that raise a part of the body are known as _______________.
System or Tubules
107.) The muscle action potential is able to pass into the muscle via the T-______________.
110.) Dark bands of the muscle fibers are made up of thick filaments of the protein _______________.
112.) _________________ or sensory neurons are those that convey information from receptors in periphery of the body to the brain and spinal cord.
113.) A(n) _________________ is the simplest pathway able to receive a stimulus, enter the central nervous system for immediate interpretation and produce a response.
114.) Transmission of nerve impulses across synapses is brought about by the secretion of very low concentrations of chemicals called _______________ that move across the gap.
115.) The short, branched nerve fibers on the nerve cell that are the receptive areas of the neuron are called ______________.
116.) __________________or motor neurons are those that convey information from the bain and spinal cord to muscles and glands.
118.) _______________ are small cells that protect the central nervous system by engulfing and destroying microbes and cellular debris.
120.) During ____________, the membrane potential moves back to resting membrane potential.
121.) The autonomic nervous system uses adrenaline (also called ________________) as a transmitting agent.
124.) In a neuron, protein synthesis occurs in the ___________ bodies, which are a chromatophilic substance.
125.) From the sensory neuron, the impulse may pass through a number of internuncial or _____________ neurons.
145.) (e) inflammation of the connective tissue that is part of the arches of the foot.
157.) (e) potassium ions rush out of cell in an attempt to restore resting membrane potential.
159.) (c) Sodium ions rush into a cell changing the inside charge from negative to positive.