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auditory; chapter 12 Sensation and Perception


location cues are " "





head related transfer function

the difference between the sound from the source and the sound actually entering the ears


provides information for sound localization because the head an pinnae decrease the intensity of some frequencies and increase the frequencies of others


the perception that the sound is inside our head; occurs with earphone usage

binaural cues

not effective for judgements of on elevation since in many locations they may be zero


auditory system determines Azimuth based on " " regardless of frequency

acoustic shadow effect

higher frequency sounds elicit greater intensity differences between ears due to the " "


helps with localizing high frequencies


also needed for good sound localization

olivary complex

summation of binaural beats occurs where in the cortex?


beat frequencies appear to have " " amplitudes

superior olivary complex and auditory cortex

have neurons that respond best to specific time difference between the sound in one ear and the time in the other

auditory cortex

damage to the " ", patients have difficulty localizing sound


humans localize based on topographic maps (true or false?)

what stream

responsible for identifying sounds, sound recognition

where stream

responsible for locating sounds, sound localization

precedent effect

judge sound location to be the source that is detected by the closest ear


at differences of " " we detect teh same sound


for sond differences great than " " we detect an echo

reverberation time

the amount and duration of indirect sound in a room, also known as the time it takes for the sound to decrease to 1/1000th of its original level (or 60dB)


if the RT is too long, the sound seems " "


if the RT is too short, the sound seems " "


perfect RT for a concert hall

intimacy time

time between when sound arrives and when the first reflection arrives from indirect sound


JND for pitch


eliminating the fundamental causes a change in " "


side of the brain especially critical for perceiving pitch


side of brain for processing rapid changes in frequency and intensity

second auditory cortex

central pitch processor; when damaged, causes tone deafness


both left and right sides are necessary for complete perception of " "


when one sensation provides another, ie tasting blue, or hearing orange

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