AP Psychology Chapter 2 Review
Terms in this set (45)
theory that claimed bumps on the c=skull could reveal our mental abilities and our character traits
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. (Potential for a neuron to fire again)
carry messages from the body's tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal chord for processing. (Body to brain)
Carry outgoing information from brain to spinal cord to the muscles and glands (brain to body)
information is processed by these in the brain between sensory and motor inputs/outputs
receive information and conduct it toward the cell body.
Insulates the axons of some neurons and helps speed their impulses.
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.
They are like the grappling hooks thrown to scale a building.
neurotransmitters that function in motor movement and muscle control; plays a role in memory/learning.
Lack of it can lead to Alzheimer's
Functions in motor control and mental alertness (emotions)
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal.
Lack of this leads to depression.
Helps control alertness and arousal. Also link to depression.
A major inhibitory neurotransmitters. Lack of is linked to seizures and insomnia.
Major excitatory neurotransmitter. Involved in memory, oversupply results in headaches.
Functions in pain control; involved in serious addictions.
(Released in physical activities such as running, biking, soccer, etc.)
Similar enough to neurotransmitters to mimic effects.
blocks a neurotransmitter's functions.
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
Ex. your nerves in your fingers tell you when you touch a hot stove.
Neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
Ex. your brain telling you to type.
Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between sensory and motor neurons.
Almost as a mediator.
Somatic Nervous System
Division of the peripheral nervous system controls the body's skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
Division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs and the muscles of the internal organs (heart).
Automatic control of body like a heartbeat or breathing in your sleep.
Circuit of neurons making connections. These build when you learn something. They bond together and fire together.
Tissue destruction. Done to remove tumors.
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweeps across the brain surfaces. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
Allows composite of numerous "single x-ray" images. Displays structures but not activity, and exposes body to bad radiation.
can see "activity" in the brain. Displays glucose levels like a weather map.
uses magnetic fields to measure/display information of the brain (structure not functions) Better detailed than CAT scan, often with color.
The base of the brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing.
A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal (keeping us conscious).
The brains sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellu, and medulla.
Receives sensory info, directs it to appropriate ares of the brian.
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions: coordination of movement output and balance.
Neural system of amygdala and hypothalamus. Located between the cerebral hemispheres, associated with emotions and drives.
A neural structure below the thalamus; governs endocrine system (hunger and thirst influences sexual arousals and biorhythms)
Ultimate control and information processing center. (Gray wrinkled mass).
Provide nutrients for neurons
Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body and movement sensations.
Involved in higher mental functions rather than motor or sensory.
Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemishpere damage to Broca's or Wernicke's area.
Brain's ability to reorganize itself by building new pathways based on experience after damage.
Band of neural fibers that connect two hemispheres and relays messages.
"Slow" chemical communication system, secretes hormones into bloodstream.
chemical messangers manufactured by endocrine gland.
sit above kidneys, secret hormons that arouse body during stress.
Regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.