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Immunology: Unit 3- Current Vaccination Strategies
Terms in this set (13)
A preparation of living or inactivated pathogens used as an antigen.
Administration of a living or inactivated pathogen to induce an immune response.
What is protective immunity from vaccination?
Vaccine-induced effectors (e.g. antibodies) prevent re-infection
How does vaccination provide protective immunity?
Long-lived plasma cells in bone marrow maintain antibody levels in bloodstream to neutralize pathogen at site of pathogen invasion.
What is immunological memory in terms of vaccination?
Vaccine-induced memory lymphocytes will not prevent re-infection, but can prevent disease or at least reduce severity of disease
How does vaccination provide immunological memory?
Vaccine-induced memory lymphocytes circulate through secondary lymphoid tissues
What are 2 characteristics of killed vaccines?
1. Killed vaccines generally result in an antibody response
2. Very poor induced of cytotoxic T-cells
What are the characteristics of live vaccines?
Live vaccines can mimic a natural infection resulting in polyvalent immunity:
-CD4 helper T-cells
-CD8 cytotoxic T-cells
Why do some vaccines require a booster (for disease in which antibody levels strongly correlate w/ protection)?
Based on persistance of antibodies and incubation period of disease (pace of pathogenesis)
Do long-lived plasma cell live forever in the body?
They can have a finite lifespan. Long-lived plasma cells are NOT maintained after some vxs so booster required
What are maintained for decades after most vaccinations and natural infections?
Memory B cells
What is an example of a disease that needs a booster vx? Why?
Diphtheria. Fast pace of pathogenesis (2-5 days). Memory B cells would not be activated for 3-5 days so could not clear disease before causing an infection
What is an example of a disease that does NOT need a booster vx? Why?
Hepatitis B. Slow pace of pathogenesis (45 days). Memory B cells would have plenty of time to recognize pathogen and provide secondary immune response
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