BCBA 4th Ed. Task List - Section III - Task FK
Terms in this set (93)
Lawfulness of Behavior
Behavior is determined by specific conditions or variables.
Note: Determinism is the assumption that deals with this aspect of behavior.
Theory which holds that all forms of life evolve as a result of selection with respect to function. Also known as "selection by consequences".
Note: Organisms evolve biologically & behaviorally. Behaviors that are reinforced tend to increase, those that are punished decrease.
The history of the natural evolution of a species.
The history of the development of an individual organism during his/her lifetime.
Note: Has to do with an organism's learning history.
The use of inductive reasoning based on empirical observation. Conclusions are based on practical considerations.
Behavior is determined by a set of social contingencies.
The assumption that the universe is a logical and orderly place in which all phenomena occur as a result of other events.
Note: "Everything happens for a reason" that is caused by some event. The assumption that deals with the "lawfulness of behavior"
The practice of objective observation.
Note: What are the antecedents and consequences surrounding a behavior?
Simpler, more logical explanations be ruled out before a more complex or abstract explanation is considered. Simple refers to requiring fewer assumptions.
Note: Simple is better.
Any psychological theory that accepts a mental basis for human behavior.
Environmental explanations of behavior
The examination and analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events, in contrast with subjective mental states.
Observing what goes on rather than guessing what people feel.
Attempts to understand all of human behavior in terms of controlling variables in history and biology.
Note: All of behavior!
Philosophy that views behavioral events that cannot be observed as outside the realm of science.
Note: Study observable ONLY. Only do what we know how to do.
Conceptual Analysis of Behavior
Branch of behavior analysis that addresses the philosophical and historical aspects of the science.
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Repeated observations of well-defined behavior of a single subject in a controlled and standardized experimental chamber. This branch of the science is concerned with basic principles of behavior, and is not as concerned with social significance.
Applied Behavior Analysis
The science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree and demonstrate experimentally that the procedures employed were responsible for the improvement in behavior.
Behavior is socially significant.
Behavior is the factor of concern.
Dead Person's Test
Refers to the idea that behavior is something a dead person cannot do.
Demonstrates experimental control over the occurrence and nonoccurrence of the behavior.
Treatment improves behavior sufficiently to produce practical results.
Written description is sufficiently complete and detailed to enable others to replicate the procedure.
Procedures are derived from the basic principles of behavior.
Results in behavior change that lasts over time, appear in other environments, and spread to other behaviors.
Behavior change is maintained over time.
The behavior change is resistant to extinction.
Behavior change demonstrated in naturalistic circumstances.
Refers to when the behavior change is consistently demonstrated.
Behavioral Service Delivery
Branch of the science of behavior analysis which deals with professional practice and consultation.
The activity of living organisms.
A specific instance or occurrence of a particular behavior.
Note: One behavior, each instance is one response.
Responses that share enough common elements with former responses to produce the same consequence.
Note: Group of behaviors, same consequences.
The real circumstance in which an organism (or some part of it) exists.
Note: The world around a behavior(s).
Specific aspect of the environment that can be differentiated from others.
Note: Anything in the environment.
Set of stimuli with a common relationship.
Example: Yellow banana, yellow sun, yellow crayon. They are all in a group of "things that are yellow."
Accurate responding to untrained stimuli. Demonstrated in terms of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity.
Note: Stimuli are equal.
Individual matches stimulus to itself in absence of training (A=A).
Without training individual reverses the match; (If A=B, B=A).
Learner can match further relations of untrained examples; (If A=B and B=C, A=C).
Unconditioned stimulus (US) elicits unconditioned response (UR).
Note: (US-UR) It just happens.
Behavior which is influenced by antecedents alone.
Conditioned stimulus (CS) elicits conditioned response (CR).
Note: (CS-CR) Learned relationship between the antecedent and a behavior.
Behavior that is influenced by antecedents and consequences.
Process by which operant learning occurs; Reinforcement increases likelihood of behavior; punishment decreases likelihood of behavior.
Note: Learning by antecedents and consequences.
Stimuli are able to influence future rate of behavior without previous exposure.
Refers to the use of reinforcers which have been paired with other reinforcers in the past.
Process in which a stimulus decreases the likelihood of the response it follows without previous exposure to that stimulus.
This refers to the use of punishers which gain their effectiveness through pairing with other punishers.
Intervals Schedules of Reinforcement
Reinforcer delivered following the first response after a period of time.
Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement
Reinforcer delivered following a given number of responses.
Fixed Interval Schedule of Reinforcement
Reinforcer is delivered following the first response after a given period of time. Throughout this schedule, the period of time remains constant. This schedule causes responding in a "scalloped" pattern.
Variable Interval Schedule of Reinforcement
Schedule in which reinforcer is delivered following an average number of responses. This schedule results in responding that is steady, with no pot-reinforcement pause.
Fixed Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcer is delivered following a given number of responses. This number remains constant. Responding under this schedule of reinforcement is marked by a post-reinforcement pause after a steady pattern of responding.
Variable Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement
Reinforcer is delivered following an average number of responses. High-rate of responding, w/out a post-reinforcement pause.
The withholding of a reinforcer for a previously reinforced behavior.
Immediate increase in frequency, intensity, and variability of the behavior immediately following the withholding of a reinforcer. Followed by a decrease in behavior.
Reinforcer independent of social mediation.
Punishment occurs independent of social mediation.
Socially Mediated Positive Reinforcment
Refers to the contingent addition of reinforcers which are social in nature. Involve others.
Socially Mediated Negative Reinforcement
Refers to the contingent removal or avoidance of social stimuli.
Refers to the contingent addition of tangible items rather than social interaction.
Responses are more likely to be emitted in the presence of certain stimuli.
Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
Refers to a stimulus that signals the availability of a reinforcer.
Refers to a stimulus which signals that the reinforcer is unavailable.
Environmental variable that alters the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event, and alters the frequency of all behavior reinforced or punished by that stimulus, object, or event.
Unconditioned Motivating Operations (UMO)
An MO whose value-altering effect does not depend on learning history.
Conditioned Motivating Operations (CMO)
An MO whose value-altering effect depends on a learning history.
Transitive Motivating Operations (CMO-T)
As a result of learning history, this is a stimulus that affects the reinforcing effectiveness of another stimulus and frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by that stimulus.
Reflexive Motivating Operations (CMO-R)
Acquires MO effectiveness by preceding some form of worsening conditions.
Surrogate Motivating Operations (CMO-S)
Acquires MO effectiveness by being paired with another MO that has the same value altering and behavior altering effects as the MO with which it is paired.
Temporary condition (MO) that increases the effectiveness of a given reinforcer.
Temporary conditions which decrease the effectiveness of a reinforcer.
Refers to the feature of MO's which alters the value of a given reinforcer.
Refers to the idea that the MO will evoke or suppress behavior associated with a given consequence.
Describes an antecedent event which reduces operant responding.
Dependent and/or temporal relations between operant behavior and controlling variable.
The temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. This term refers to the immediacy of the presentation of the unconditioned stimulus.
Behavior occurs as a function of a particular variable.
The differences in behavior that occur when the situation alters the evocative effect of stimuli.
Multiple Functions of a Single Stimulus
This refers to the phenomena that one stimulus can serve different functions with respect to behavior.
Learner performs responses beyond the learned response.
Learner is able to respond to stimuli different than training stimuli
Increases access to new reinforcers and environments, competes with inappropriate responses, has generativeness, and has social validity.
When you start to see improvement in one behavior, you may see a trend in the opposite direction in another.
Technique in which high probability requests are presented rapidly preceding a low probability request.
Law describes the quantitative relationship between the relative rates of reinforcement and rates of behavior. It describes the correlation between reinforcement and behavior.
This type of behavior is controlled by history of reinforcement/punishment. It is required that the contingency has been directly contacted.
Behavior which is maintained by the statement of an anticipated consequence, without any direct contact with that contingency.
Verbal response to verbal stimulus which has point to point correspondence and some degree of formal similarity.
Verbal operant which is under the control of establishing operations.
Verbal response to nonverbal stimulus.
Refers to a verbal response to a verbal stimulus in the absence of nonverbal stimuli.
Secondary verbal operant which modifies the function of other verbal behavior.