Bio Chapter 9 Learning Curve
Terms in this set (27)
_____ encompasses any and all of the actions performed by an organism
Kin selection is:
A. a type of selection that can lead to the evolution of altruistic behavior toward close relatives
B. when, in certain species, individuals choose to mate with their kin to maximize reproductive success
C. when a parent chooses certain offspring to keep and disposes of the "useless" ones
D. identical to reciprocal altruism
E. when close relatives of certain animal species are selected by fighting to the death
Mate guarding is a reproductive tactic that functions to:
A. reduce paternity uncertainty
B. increase the female's investment in the offspring
C. increase the number of mates to which a male has access
D. reduce the male's reproductive investment
E. increase the number of times copulation occurs with a female
A signal that cannot be faked and carries the most accurate info about a situation or individual is known as an _____ signal
Why do human taste preferences exist?
A. fats actually do taste better than sugars
B. human feeding choices influence energy intake and, consequently, fitness
C. human taste preferences are culturally generated; consumers are influenced by suggestive advertising
D. humans can extract energy from a variety of non-food sources, and so taste preferences cause us to focus on foods that are more plentiful in our environment
E. vitamins and minerals give food unusual tastes, which causes us to seek them out
which of the following is an example of kin selection?
A. a well-fed vampire bat will share blood with an unrelated starving vampire bat
B. in the australian social spider, shortly after giving birth to about 50 spiderlings, the mother's body slowly liquefies into a nutritious fluid that the newborns consume
C. people who grow up together from infancy on the same kibbutz never marry each other
D. a goose will preferentially retrieve larger model egg to smaller natural egg
E. all of the above are examples of kin selection
relative to birds, more mammalian species are:
D. sexually dimorphic
E. both the second and fourth choices are correct
evolution would tend to favor:
A. greater clarity and unambiguous communication
B. decreasing sophistication of communication signals
C. always honest communication
D. always deceptive communication
E. none of the above are correct
a goose sees an egg outside of its nest. Which of the following potential responses by the goose is a fixed action pattern?
A. the goose lets the egg go. Its a bigger risk to save one egg and leave the rest of the nest
B. the goose continuously calls until the paternal counterpart retrieves the egg
C. the goose brings the egg, and all similarly shaped items that it passes along the way, back to the nest
D. the goose brings back the egg and releases pheromones along the way
E. the goose uses a side-to-side motion to bring the egg back, and even if the egg is taken away during the process, continues using that motion back to the nest
which of the following is NOT an example of evolved reciprocal altruism?
A. donating money to charity
B. a vampire bat regurgitating blood to feed another starving bat
C. volunteering time at a homeless shelter
D. monkeys picking parasites off each other
E. all of the above
the sex with less energetic investment in reproduction:
A. will have gametes that are larger than the sex with more energetic investment
B. will be more discriminating when it comes to mating
C. will compete among themselves for access to the higher-investing sex
D. will be less interested in mating
E. will always be the male of the species
which of the following modes of communication are seen among mammals?
D. all of the above
E. only the first and third choices are correct
why is it so much easier for an infant to learn a complex language than for a college student to learn biology?
A. biology involves much more vocabulary than learning a complex language
B. language is a feature with great evolutionary relevance for humans
C. learning biology was not a behavior with evolutionary relevance for humans
D. language involves memorization only, without the need for understanding rules, whereas biology involves both
E. both the second and third choices are true
what is the key difference between kin selection and group selection?
A. altruism. group selection occurs due to natural selection, but kin selection occurs due to altruistic behaviors that benefit related organisms
B. relatedness. Kin selection is altruism that helps to increase a relative's fitness and consequently the individuals own fitness. Group selection is a process where an individual's detrimental behavior is beneficial to the population
C. nothing. There is no key difference between the two, since they describe identical processes
D. evolution. kin selection is an altruism-based selection that occurs independent of evolution, whereas group selection is due to the forces of evolution
E. population size. kin selection occurs between one set of genetically related organisms, that is, a brother and a sister. Group selection occurs over an infinite population size
which of the following best explains the age-old idea that a male should court and/or compete for a female?
A. a female becomes more desirable if she does not chase after the male due to innate behaviors
B. a female's reproductive success is rapidly decreased by seeking additional mating partners
C. females put more effort into parenting the offspring and less into seeking mates, which ultimately results in decreased reproductive success
D. for males to be most successful, in terms of reproduction, they need to find/gain access to mating opportunities with additional females
E. that idea is no longer accepted; female organisms now compete for males just as much as males do for females in the animal kingdom
which of the following is NOT a common tactic practiced by most animal females?
A. offering males a nuptial gift
B. selecting males that control valuable resources
C. mating only with males who contribute a large initial parental investment
D. requiring males to perform courtship rituals
E. choosing males with a valuable physical attribute
in mammals, as well as many other species, males generally compete for females, whereas females mate with only one or a few males. The best explanation for this phenomenon is:
A. females have higher parental investment
B. females are better looking
C. males, on average, have higher fitness
D. males are more aggressive
E. males are choosy
which of the following is NOT likely to be an innate behavior?
A. newborn birds cringe in their nests if the shadow of a predator bird passes over them
B. all african peach-faced lovebirds carry nesting materials to the nesting site by tucking them in their feathers
C. birds avoid eating distinctively-colored monarch butterflies because they taste bad
D. the red color of other male stickleback fish triggers aggressive behavior in males
E. salamanders raised in the absence of water can still swim just as well as salamanders raised near water
which of the following is TRUE about group selection?
A. it leads to unselfish individual behavior that benefits the population or species
B. it becomes progressively more common over several generations
C. it tends to increase altruistic behavior
D. it is at least as common as reciprocal altruism
E. it is a common occurrence in a large population
which of the following is NOT considered a maladaptive behavior?
B. anarchy ideals
D. charitable donations to third world countries
E. all of the above are maladaptive behaviors
which statemment best supports the reasoning behind the fact that babies quickly and readily fear snakes but not guns?
A. evolution can be slow in producing populations that are adapted to their environments
B. learned behaviors, at least in infancy, only apply to fearing other living things
C. a child's brain is incapable of grasping the fear of guns since it is based in logic, not nature
D. snakes emit a pheromone that strikes fear in infant humans
E. a child's brain is incapable of fully grasping survival, and, therefore, only fears snakes because of their appearance
you discover a new species of bird in which the females have bright, extravagant plumage whereas the males are very small and drab. What predictions CANT you make about this new species?
A. the mating system is polyandrous
B. the males will demand honest signals of health from females
C. the females are more likely to mate-guard than the males
D. the female's appearance is being sexually selected by the males
E. the males must be providing the larger gametes
what explanation BEST supports the following statement "humans and other animals dont consciously try to maximize their reproductive success, but their behaviors suggest otherwise"
A. an animal that experiences pleasure when it has sex has the incentive to seek out additional opportunities to experience that pleasure, without seeking a reproductive outcome
B. behaviors that lead to a specific outcome that increases the animal's relative reproductive success are not favored by natural selection; reproductive success is an actively conscious process, contrary to the above statement
C. non of the above
D. natural selection fails if it does not produce animals that are trying to maximize reproductive success deliberately
E. when animals have sex, they are actively thinking "I must maximize my reproductive success"
which of the following is an example of feeding behavior that has a high energy intake-to-effort ratio?
A. humans eating shelled pistachio nuts
B. crabs eating mussels that are intermediate in size
C. male hanging flies presenting females with nuptial gifts
D. vampire bats sharing blood meals with non-relatives
E. geese retrieving the largest egg-like object near their nests
A. are unusual in that they are one of the few animals species that exhibits kin selection
B. will sometimes regurgitate blood into the mouth of another individual that is close to starving, but the likelihood is a function of the degree of relatedness between the two individuals
C. dont actually consume blood
D. exhibit reciprocal altruism but not kin selection
E. will sometimes regurgitate blood into the mouth of an unrelated individual that is close to starving
under what conditions would an allele increase in a population?
A. if the allele increases the fitness of the population but not the individual
B> if the allele leads to honest behavior that decreases individual fitness
C. if the allele decreases the clarity of a communicative behavior
D. if the allele leads to deceptive behavior that increases individual fitness
E. if the allele causes easily "faked" behavior
which explanation best supports the idea that males are more sexually willing than females?
A. this statement is inaccurate; gender attitudes toward sex vary culturally
B. the consequences of sex are much greater for the female and require greater emotional commitment on her part
C. members of the sex with the greater energetic investment in reproduction will compete among themselves for access to the higher-investing sex
D. males are only more sexually willing than females in situations where the female has greater energetic investment in reproduction; however, there are many situations where the female is more sexually willing and even courts the male due to his greater investment in reproduction
E. none of the above