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49 terms

Geology: Exam Three (Ch 14-15)

University of Arkansas; Turner
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wave
primary agent of erosion
wave height
vertical distance from the trough to the crest
wavelength
horizontal distance from crest to crest or trough to trough
wave period
time for one wavelength to pass by a given point
1/2 wavelength
when the wave begins to "feel bottom"
crest
highest part of a wave
trough
lowest part of a wave
wind
wave height and wave length are both dependent on?
surf zone
turbulent water where the waves break
longshore current
waves coming in at a small angle to the shoreline that result in a current that is parallel to the shore
berm
gently sloping landward part of the beach
beachface
steeply sloping part of the beach in swash zone
baymouth bars
form as spits extend all the way across the mouths of bays
spits
sand deposits that form when longshore currents that move along the shoreline encounter deeper water in a bay and drop their sediment load
tombolos
sand deposits that build up behind sea stacks
jetties, groins, breakwaters
manmade structures designed to keep channels open, interrupt longshore currents and stabilize beach sediments, and maintain quieter waters
coast
region along a body of water
shoreline
precise boundary of water and dry land
erosional coast
characterized by steep rocky headlands
depositional coast
gently sloping plains; characterized by barrier island systems with lagoons behind them
drowned coast
irregular; contains estuaries and fjords
estuaries
flooded river valleys that formed as sea levels rose
emergent coast
elevated by tectonic forces
marine terraces
old flat terraces that were below sea level that are exposed due to uplift
sea stacks
erosional remnants of headlands
stress
force per area
compressional stress
type of stress that pushes materials together
tensional stress
type of stress that pulls things apart
shearing stress
type of stress that moves horizontally
strain
deformation that results from stress
brittle deformation
deformation involving breaking of the rock
joints and faults
examples of brittle deformations
ductile deformation
deformation in which the rock deform plastically
folds
example of a ductile deformation
strike
azimuth of a horizontal line in a plane
dip
inclination of the place
90 degrees
dip is measured at ____ to strike
axial plane
planar surface containing the fold axis or hinge lines for each layer of the fold
hinge
point of maximum curvature of the fold
limbs
sides of the fold
anticline
upward arching folds; older rocks are near the core
syncline
downward arching folds; younger rocks are near the core
domes
circular uplifted rock
joint
fracture across which there has been little displacement
fault
fracture across which there has been a displacement (slip)
hanging wall
block above the fault
footwall
block below the fault plane
normal fault
fault where the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall
reverse fault
fault where the hanging wall moves up in relation to the footwall