bio chapter 10 learning curve
Terms in this set (39)
which of the following substances was NOT part of the mixture used in the Urey-Miller experiments?
B. hydrogen gas
C. carbon dioxide
the taxonomic rank that includes families but not classes is:
in the plant kingdom, all of the species are descended from a single common ancestor. In terms of phylogeny, what type of tree of life is this?
which of the following is a cause of background extinction?
A. natural selection
C. changing environmental conditions
D. bad luck
E. all of the above
prokaryotes are divided into _____ domains
which of the following correctly shows the order of the phases in the generation of life on earth?
A. development of membranes, formation of self-replicating informational molecules, formation of small organic molecules
B. formation of self-replicating informational molecules, development of membranes, formation of small organic molecules
C. formation of small organic molecules, formation of self replicating informational molecules, development of membranes
D. formation of self-informational molecules, formation of small organic molecules, development of membranes
E. development of membranes, formation of small organic molecules, formation of self--replicating informational molecules
which species concept is based on the degree of reproductive isolation between populations of species?
A. phylogenetic species concept
B. biological species concept
C. morphological species concept
D. ecological species concept
E. recognition species concept
why is it important to compare DNA sequences in the construction of an evolutionary tree?
A. similarities in physical appearance cannot be used to construct an evolutionary tree
B. convergent evolution can cause distantly related organisms to appear closely related. DNA sequence analysis can show that they are actually distantly related
C. DNA sequence comparison is not required; homologous features alone are sufficient in evolutionary tree construction
D. RNA sequences are actually more important in constructing an evolutionary tree since they are the precursors to DNA
E. none of the above
The three phenomena that tend to trigger adaptive radiations are:
A. sympatric speciation, allopatric speciation, and hybridization
B. hybridization, polyploidy, and background extinctions
C. reproductive isolation, punctuated equilibrium, and horizontal gene transfer
D. horizontal gene transfer, convergent evolution, and polyploidy
E. mass extinctions, colonization events, and evolutionary innovations
archaeans can be found in which of the following environments?
A. hot springs
B. very salty ponds
C. on the bottom of the ocean
D. all of the above
E. only the second and third choices are true
in a set of classic experiments performed in the 1950s, Urey and Miller subjected an experimental system composed of H2, CH4 (methane), and NH4 (ammonia) to electrical sparks. A few days later, they found ______ in their system
E. amino acids
which of the following is in descending order, from MOST inclusive to LEAST inclusive?
A. class, family, species, order, phylum
B. phylum, class, order, genus, family
C. domain, phylum, family, class, species
D. kingdom, class, family, genus, species
E. family, order, class, species, genus
in comparing the streamlined nature of a dolphin and that of a shark, you conclude that the streamline feature evolved independently in sharks and dolphins. This common characteristic most likely is the result of:
A. highly similar DNA sequences
B. convergent evolution
C. descent from a recent common ancestor
E. dolphins evolving from sharks
many people question whether or not viruses are alive. What is the main piece of evidence supporting the idea that they are not alive?
A. viruses have no organelles
B. viruses cant replicate
C. viruses can only have metabolic activity by taking over the metabolism of another organism
D. viruses lack a nucleus
E. viruses cannot exist on their own; they require another viral counterpart
researchers have found that mixtures of ______ placed in water or salt solutions tend to spontaneously form small spherical units that resemble living cells.
A. RNA molecules
B. volcanic rocks
D. DNA molecules
In animals, it is believed that the most common mode of speciation is:
which of the following pairs of organisms is probably monophyletic?
A. archaeans, bacteria
B. large cactus finch, vampire finch
C. plants fungi
D. dolphins, sharks
E. giant sequoia trees, magnolia trees
which of the following events is likely to precede an adaptive radiation?
A. a population is split by the upthrust of a new mountain range
B. a few individuals fly over to an island in the middle of a river
C. an avalanche of rocks falls off a mountain into a small lake
D. a new species evolves gradually over long periods of time
E. the ability to lay water-retaining eggs on land evolves
which of the following is FALSE regarding the history of organism classification?
A. the two-kingdom system became a five kingdom system in the 1960s
B. the current system division is based on two groups--prokaryotes and eukaryotes
C. carl woese was able to compare the evolutionary relatedness of all living organisms by examining ribosomal RNA
D. the three domains of life commonly accepted today are bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
E. all of the above are true
life originated on earth in which of the following distinct phases?
A. formation of small molecules containing carbon and hydrogen
B. formation of self-replicating info-containing molecules
C. development of a membrane enabling metabolism and creating the first cells
D. all of the above are correct
E. none of the above is correct
which of the following is the correct organization of life?
A. domain; kingdom; phylum; class; order; family; genera; species
B. domain; kingdom; phylum; class; origins; family; genera; species
C. species; genera; family; order; class; phylum; kingdom; domain
D. bacteria; archaea; eukarya; protists; chordata; mammalia; humans
E. genus; species
which of the following are NOT homologous features?
A. the scales of the lizard and scales of the snake
B. the wing of the beetle and the wing of the fly
C. the hair of the elephant and the hair of the horse
D. the wing of the bird and the wing of the beetle
E. all of the above are homologous features
which of the following statements correctly distinguishes between microevolution and macroevolution?
A. macroevolution occurs faster than microevolution
B. microevolution occurs by a fundamentally different process than macroevolution
C. macroevolution is limited to changes in allele frequencies without speciation
D. macroevolution can lead to microevolution after a long period of time
E. macroevolution includes speciation, while microevolution does not
which of the following best explains why bacteria have the greatest biomass of any other plant or animal on earth?
A. bacteria are able to live essentially anywhere-- soil, air, water, ice, etc.
B. some bacteria can make their own food
C. some bacteria can survive and thrive with or without oxygen
D. there is one dominant species of bacteria that has a greater molecular weight than all the other bacteria, accounting for the high biomass
E. the first three choices are correct
the fact that RNA can catalyze reactions necessary for replication gave rise to:
A. the RNA world hypothesis
D. the Urey-Miller experiment
E. protein synthesis
which of the following is a shortcoming of the biological species concept?
A. it is difficult to classify asexual species
B. it is difficult to determine when one species has changed into another
C. it is difficult to classify ring species
D. it is difficult to classify hybridizing species
E. all of the above are shortcomings of the biological species concept
which of the following is NOT true about the tempo of evolution?
A. evolution always occurs gradually, with small changes over long periods of time
B. rapid evolutionary changes by punctuated equilibrium proceed by a process different from natural selection
C. gaps in the fossil record mean that some creatures went extinct and then made a comeback
D. scientific evidence now shows that gradualism, as proposed by Darwin, is wrong
E. none of the above are true concerning the current view of the tempo of evolution
which of the following scenarios fits the definition of macro evolution?
A. the increase in the frequency of polydactyly among the pennsylvania amish population
B. the changes in wing color of the peppered moth over the last 100 years
C. the general increase in height of the human species over the last 200 years
D. the divergence of the eastern and western meadowlark birds into two different species
E. the increase in milk production of cows in the early 1900s
phase 1 of the creation of life on earth was the formation of small molecules containing carbon and hydrogen. Phase 2 was the formation of self-replicating, info containing molecules. Phase 3 was:
A. the development of a membrane, enabling metabolism and creating the first cells
B. the development of a nucleus, enabling metabolism and creating the first cells
C. the formation of RNA
D. the cooling of the earth to a temperature conducive to life
E. the formation of DNA
which of the following accurately states the goal of biological classification?
A. the separation of all organisms into four separate kingdoms
B. a way to include all biological entities, including viruses, in the tree of life
C. the grouping of organisms into three large polyphyletic categories
D. the acknowledgement that ancestral eukaryotes gave rise to ancestral bacteria and archaeans
E. the grouping of organisms into categories that reflects their evolutionary history
which of the following is TRUE about eukarya?
A. the majority of the named species on earth are eukarya, and the majority of eukaryotes are insects
B. at the time of the split between eukarya and archaea, eukarya were single-celled, primitive forms of bacteria
C. the majority of all species inhabiting the earth are eukaryotic, and the majority of eukaryotes are insects
D. all of the kingdoms of eukarya can be seen with the naked eye
E. Archaea and eukarya split about 35 billion years ago
populations of Larus gulls around the north pole show an unusual pattern of reproductive isolation: each population is able to interbreed with neighboring populations, but populations separated by larger geographic distances are not able to interbreed. This is called:
A. allotropic species
B. circular species
C. contiguous species
D. peripatric species
E. ring species
if a local climate grows wetter and a river splits the habitat in two, a single population of organisms can be split into two separate populations. These populations will have different evolutionary paths over time, to the point where they may no longer be able to interbreed. What is this an example of?
A. bottleneck effect
B. allopatric speciation
C. sympatric speciation
D. founder's effect
E. parapatric speciation
birds and crocodiles share a more recent common ancestor than either group shares with lizards or mammals. Lizards and crocodiles have a common ancestor also shared by birds. Which of the following statements about the relationships among these organisms is most accurate?
A. birds and crocodiles are a monophyletic group
B. lizards and crocodiles do NOT compose a monophyletic group
C. birds, crocodiles, and lizards taken together compose a monophyletic group
D. birds, crocodiles, lizards, and mammals taken together also compose a monophyletic group
E. all of the above
which of the following is NOT correct about wings?
A. they are homologous feature of all of the species of bats
B. they evolved separately on more than one occasion
C. they can be found in mammals, birds, and insects
D. they are aeronautically efficient
E. the most recent common ancestor of bats and insects had wings
a dog and a pig attempt to mate. We are aware that they are from two different species, but what is the best explanation for the barrier that makes it impossible for them to successfully mate?
A. there is a postzygotic barrier between the two animals: the males reproductive cell cannot fertilize the female's reproductive cell
B. there is a prezygotic barrier, the males reproductive cell cannot fertilize the female's
C. the postzygotic barrier results in hybrid animal production; such hybrids are sterile
D. due to animal instincts, the dog wants to prey on the pig; therefore, mating is impossible
E. actually, dogs and pigs can mate as long as they are roughly the same size
which of the following is a correct statement about sympatric or allopatric speciation?
A. sympatric speciation might occur if a body of water shrinks, leaving the fish isolated in separate smaller ponds
B. allopolyploidy is a type of allopatric speciation
C. allopatric speciation can be called "speciation without geographic isolation"
D. polyploidy is a type of sympatric speciation
E. allopatric speciation may occur as long as two populations have the same geographical range
RNA is a multifaceted molecule and key component to the success of life. Which of the following statements about RNA is most accurate?
A. it is possible that this complex molecule could have been a self-replicating system
B. the world was most likely filled with DNA-life first, which evolved to produce RNA life
C. RNA is incapable of storing information, but it is vital in converting the info embedded in DNA to useful proteins
D. RNA can act much like protein enzymes
E. there is no link between RNA and the possibility of it being a precursor to cellular life
under what conditions might the morphological species concept be used instead of the biological species concept?
A. all members of one population can successfully interbreed with another population
B. two closely related species can hybridize but the offspring are sterile
C. a particular "species" is sexually reproducing
D. the fossils of the species are similar, but evidence for reproductive isolation between them is unclear
E. it is clear that one species evolved into another, based on fossils
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