those protections against discrimination by the government and individuals, intended to prevent discrimination based on race, religion, gender, ethnicity, physical handicap, or sexual orientation
principle in the Fifth & 14th Amend. stating that the government must follow proper constitutional procedures in trials and in other actions it takes against individuals
jim crow laws
State level legal codes of segregation, literacy requirements and poll taxes
clause included in the state constitutions of several southern states after the Civil War placing high literacy and property requirements for voters whose ancestors did not vote before 1867.
civil rights act of 1964
it made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restaurants illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination
de facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
de jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but was NOT ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Bakke vs Regents of California
A Supreme Court ruling stating that a college may not use an explicit numerical quota in admitting minorities but could "take race into account"
Gratz vs Bollinger
Univ. of Mich admissions policy was too dependent on race and needed to be changed
Grutter vs Bollinger
upheld that michigan could use race as a factor in admissions; affirmative action was still constitutional
amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the STATE and national levels.
This amendment granted black men the right to vote.
civil rights act of 1875
reconstruction era law that banned discrimination in public places (theaters, hotels....)
civil rights cases
Court ruled that 14th amendment only protected citizens from gov't NOT private discrimination
gave women the right to vote
lowered the voting age to 18
gave residents of Washington DC the right to vote
eliminated the poll tax as a voting requirement
Plessy vs Ferguson
ruled that segregation was OK as long as the facilities were equal (separate but equal doctrine)
Brown vs Board of Ed
ruled that segregtion was unconstitutional(cancelled the separate but equal doctrine)