37 terms

The Growth of European Nation-States

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Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Diaz
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
da Gama
This was the first explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope and sail into the Indian Ocean trade
Cabral
This explorer first saw the mainland of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal while sailing to set up trading posts in India
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Pizzaro
conquered the Inca empire
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as Suleiman Kanuni, 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean
Ivan the Terrible
first czar of Russia, known for cruelty and being constantly at war
Peter the Great
ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to western europe, modernize and strengthen Russia
Hohenzollern
a German noble family that ruled Brandenburg and Prussia
Fredrick William
Prussian King that established Prussian Absolutism; known as "Soldier's King"
Absolutism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Francis I
This was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select French bishops and abbots
Concordat of Bologna
1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
Henry II
first Plantagenet King of England.
Edict of Toleration
an edict passed that all may practice their religion freely (overruled by Louis XIV)
Catherine De Medici
Was the wife of Henry II. She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89).
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
Duke of Sully
Henry IV's devout protestant chief minister, combined indirect taxes on salt, sales, transit an leased their collection to financiers, revenues increased b/c of revival of trade, paid for the Company for Trade with the Indies, restored public order in France, laid foundations of eco prosperity
Cardinal Richelieu
minister of King Louis XVIII, appointed by Marie de Medici , had the real power, wanted to curb power of nobility, 32 generalities
Louis XIV
king of France from 1643 to 1715
Mazarin
Richelieu's successor regarding centralization in France, ruled France during Louis XIV's childhood
Wars of Frondes
war in which French nobles fought to limit the powers of the monarch and to extend their own influence
Divine Right theory of Rule
claimed that a king was placed on a throne by God and therefore owed his authority to no person or group
Henry VIII
son of Henry VII and King of England from 1509 to 1547
Mary Tudor
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558
Elizabeth I
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)
The Stuart Kings
unpopular line of kings who attempted to consolidate absolutist rule in England
The Stuart Restoration
the return of Charles II and monarchical rule following the English Civil War
Tories
Another name for Loyalists
Whigs
party that favored a national bank, protective tariffs and eventually the abolition of slavery
The Glorious Revolution
The English Parliament drove out an absolute monarch and replaced him with two constitutional monarch's William and Mary
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
The Thirty Nine Articles
established in 1563 and are the historic defining statements of Anglican doctrine in relation to the controversies of the English Reformation; especially in the relation of Calvinist doctrine and Roman Catholic practices to the nascent Anglican doctrine of the evolving English Church.
Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day
(1572) was a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants), during the French Wars of Religion.