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The Middle Ages Unit (ch 13)


A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land


a large estate, including farmland and villages, held by a lord


land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service


person granted land from a lord in return for services


(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord

Middle Ages

The historical period from around 500 A.D. up to around 1450 A.D. between the fall of Rome and the birth of the Renaissance


Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800

Gregory I

"Gregory the Great"; broadened the authority of the papacy, or pope's office, beyond spiritual role; papacy became secular power involved in politicsOtto

charles martel

the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.


Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary

Pope Urban II

Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades

The Crusades

a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Western European Christians to reclaim control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims

First Crusade

1099 CE, Jerusalem fell the Christian crusaders; the only successful crusade.

Second Crusade

in 1147, effort to stem the Muslim resurgence; UNSUCCESSFUL; Jerusalem was taken by Saladin (Muslim)

Third Crusade

(1189 - 1192) Crusade led by King Richard the Lionhearted to recapture the city of Jerusalem from Islamic forces led by Saladin; failed in attempt.


a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle


in medieval times a youth acting as a knight's attendant as the first stage in training for knighthood


the second stage to becoming a knight, at around teenhood, kinghts assistant, caring for horses, train with weapons, and go to battle

Song of Roland

An epic that talked of a chivalric knight named Roland, it revealed the popular image of Charlemagne in later centuries, This is a French epic written about Charlemagne's knights, most popular song in Medieval Europe, addresses loyalty and courage.


wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women


a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds

eleanor of aquitaine

queen of France and England, she was one of the most powerful women in Europe in the Middle Ages


large building built by lords to defend against attacks; first of these were made of wood not stone. They provided security in times of war.


under his rule, the Franks became Christians and created one of the strongest kingdoms in Europe


drew up a set of rules to regulate monastic life. 3 vows-- obedience, poverty, and chastity

Otto I

Established self a kingdom in n. Germany. He entered Italy twice to protect the church. He eventually was crowned emperor, the first of the Holy Roman Empire


one of the Christian ceremonies in which God's grace is transmitted to people


the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church

lay invesiture

the practice of lay persons (such as kings) appointing bishops, priests, abbots, and abbesses: they then expected favors in return---> corruption HenryIV VS. Pope Gregory

The Holy Land

present-day Jerusalem; land valued by Christians, Jews, and Muslims

Richard the Lion Hearted

The English king that was left to lead the crusaders in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Saladin. He made a truce with Saladin which allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims to visit the city's holy places.


The leader of the Muslims in the third crusade and captured Jerusalem in 1187.


one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western Europe from the eighth through the tenth century


of or pertaining to the pope

Concordat of Worms

A compromise between the king and the Pope that started that the church alone could grant a bishop his ring and staff (church power) but his power could be vetoed by the king

Three field system

a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.


business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Each guild represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc.


A combat on horseback between two knights


Head of a monastery


A place where communities of monks live lives of devotion to God in isolation from the outside world

Bubonic Plague

Also called the Black Death was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people

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