Theatre Praxis Practice Questions

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An elementary school teacher is organizing a lesson with the goal of exploring performance through the use of improvisation. Which of the following group activities is most likely to promote effective student learning as part of the lesson?

A. Practicing a choreographed dance to a popular song

B. Drawing pictures of selected characters from a story

C. Reading through a play-script and blocking action

D. Creating a simple skit inspired by a costume piece
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Terms in this set (118)
An elementary school teacher is organizing a lesson with the goal of exploring performance through the use of improvisation. Which of the following group activities is most likely to promote effective student learning as part of the lesson?

A. Practicing a choreographed dance to a popular song

B. Drawing pictures of selected characters from a story

C. Reading through a play-script and blocking action

D. Creating a simple skit inspired by a costume piece
Selections from which of the following books are most appropriate to assign to middle school theatre students who are beginning their study of Shakespeare?

A. Playing Shakespeare by John Barton

B. Tales from Shakespeare by Charles and Mary Lamb

C. Prefaces to Shakespeare by Harley Granville-Barker

D. Shakespeare Our Contemporary by Jan Kolt
B. is the correct answer. Charles and Mary Lamb's classic prose adaptation, Tales from Shakespeare (1807), was one of the first such works to provide young people access to the play by simplifying their complicated plots and archaic language. It is the only option that is at an appropriate reading level for middle school students.
In a high school acting class, students are assessed at specific points during the school year, utilizing their input as well as their teacher's. Which of the following methods best contributes to this assessment?

A. Having students give oral presentations to the class in which they reveal a recent grade they earned and explain how they think they might improve their performance

B. Conferencing with each student to discuss specific areas where the student must work harder to earn a better grade

C. Administering a form to the students on which they will rate themselves according to several criteria and provide written explanations for the ratings

D. Having students prepare portfolios of their work for the teacher that are indicative of their best efforts and of areas that need improvement
C. is the correct answer. Having students complete a self-evaluation form prepared by the teacher will allow the teacher to gain meaningful input from students about their progress. By preparing the form, the teacher can guide students toward specific areas to emphasize in their self-evaluations, and by asking students to explain their answers, the teacher will encourage them to reflect meaningfully on their work.
Which of the following scenarios provides an example of a diagnostic assessment?

A. On the first day of class, a high school theatre teacher assesses students' skills as performers by putting them into pairs and having each pair present an unrehearsed reading of a two-person scene.

B. Midway through the term, a middle school theatre teacher assesses students, skills as performers by having each student give two performances of a monologue, the first based on the student's own interpretation of the text and the second based on feedback provided by the teacher.

C. A middle school theatre teacher assesses students by having them take a final exam covering key theatre terms and ideas that have been discussed over the course of the year.

D. A high school theatre teacher assesses students by having them present a fully staged production to an audience of teachers and peers.
A. is the correct answer. A diagnostic assessment is one that provides a teacher with information about students' prior knowledge, skills, or abilities. As a result of the assessment described, the teacher will gain knowledge of the performance skills that the students already have before they start the class.
Over the course of a unit on character development, a theatre teacher periodically asks carefully designed questions to assess students' understanding of the material and to help them better achieve the learning goals of the unit. The teacher's questions are an example of which type of assessment?

A. Formative

B. Summative

C. Authentic

D. Portfolio
During a unit on voice, a high school drama teacher wants students to analyze a vocal performance, focusing exclusively on how an actor uses his or her voice to convey meaning and emotion. Which of the following means of presenting the performance to students is most likely to help them focus solely on vocal performance?

A. Showing a video recording of an actor addressing the camera.

B. Playing a studio recording of an actor performing a monologue.

C. Inviting volunteers from the community theatre to perform a scene for the class.

D. Distributing copies of the soundtrack of a complete production to students.
A teacher has students interview family members about an important event in the family's life. The teacher then works with students to adapt the interviewees' responses into performances. Using this approach, which of the following will each student-made performance incorporate?

A. Autoethnography

B. Oral History

C. Forum theatre

D. Feedback theatre
On the first day of class, a middle school theatre teacher uses an improvisational exercise to introduce the theme of an original performance that the students will be developing over the course of the term. Which of the following components of the creative process is the teacher most directly addressing with the improvisational exercise?

A. Preparation

B. Incubation

C. Illumination

D. Modeling
A high school drama teacher wants students to experience collaboration with peers involved in other arts programs at the school. Which of the following approaches will be most effective for the teacher to take?

A. Inviting visual arts students to design posters for a production featuring theatre students in leading roles.

B. Creating an open mic night where students involved in various artistic disciplines can present their work.

C. Asking theatre and dance students to devise original performances combining movement and dialogue.

D. Screening documentaries for theatre students about notable creative partnerships between artists representing different mediums.
In a classroom adaptation of the theatre game called building a story, created by Viola Spolin, a student begins telling a story, and the teacher calls on the other students to continue it, each student picking up where the previous student left off. The goal of the game is for the group to tell a cohesive story. Which of the following skills is most directly addressed by this game? A. Listening B. Projection C. Diction D. EvaluatingA is the correct answer. To be successful at the game, players must listen carefully to the storyteller so that whoever is chosen next can continue the story in a cohesive way.Two sixth graders have accepted roles in a play in which their characters kiss during a moment that is a crucial to the plot. The teacher informed the students about the kiss before they accepted the roles, and neither student expressed concerns about it. However, during rehearsals, the students show obvious discomfort, giggling and avoiding eye contact with each other. Which strategy is most likely to help the students overcome their discomfort? A. Giving the students a list of films that provide appropriate examples of characters kissing. B. Substituting for the kiss an affectionate gesture that both students are comfortable with, such as a hug. C. Working with the students to create specific choreography and to establish clear guidelines for the kiss. D. Encouraging the students to practice the kiss on their own and then demonstrate it for the teacher in a private rehearsal.C is the correct answer. Working with the students to create specific choreography and to establish clear guidelines for the kiss will help the students overcome their discomfort by making them feel physically and emotionally safe.Anna, a high school theatre student with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is rehearsing for the school play. She is having trouble staying in character when the scene calls for her to be listening quietly and intently to the other characters on stage. Which of the following strategies will best help Anna maintain concentration and stay in character during those moments without distracting from the performance? A. Allowing Anna to reposition herself whenever she feels unable to focus on the onstage action. B. Having another performer in the scene call out Anna's name whenever her focus appears to wander. C. Giving Anna a rubber ball to keep in a pocket and squeeze in her hand when she needs something to focus on. D. Encouraging Anna to refocus herself by making eye contact with a peer who is seated in the wings.C is the correct answer. Researchers frequently recommend giving students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, an object to squeeze or manipulate. This allows the students to be physically active while listening, thus increasing their ability to focus. The strategy of giving the student a rubber ball to squeeze is especially appropriate for a theatre performance, as it is the least likely to call undue attention to the student and interfere with or detract from the performance.Which of the following theatre activities is likely to be the most challenging for students with dyslexia? A. Memorizing a monologue over the course of many weeks. B. Auditioning by doing a cold reading C. Keeping a personal character journal D. Performing in a rehearsed staged reading for an audienceB is the correct answer. A cold reading requires performers to read aloud from a script with little or no preparation. This activity is especially likely to be challenging for students with dyslexia, as it resists accommodation and does not allow time for students to use various strategies they may have learned to increase their success as readers.A theatre teacher has been asked to attend an individualized education plan meeting for a high school student who will be taking an introduction to theatre class. The student has been diagnosed with a behavioral disorder and often feels overwhelmed in group environments, which causes the student to act out. The class involves a significant amount of collaborative group work. Which of the following accommodations will best ensure that the student succeeds in the class while engaging as fully as possible in collaborative learning? A. Voluntary participation: allowing the student to choose to complete certain assignments alone instead of as part of a group. B. Individualized instruction: allowing time for the student to work with the teacher on different assignments in lieu of group assignments. C. Time-out: allowing the student to leave the group environment for several minutes whenever the student feels overwhelmed. D. Part-time inclusion: allowing the student to attend class sessions only when the class is working on individual activities.C is the correct answer. Time-outs offer an opportunity for self-management that will allow the student to participate to the fullest extent possible in collaborative activities.Which of the following is an example of direct instruction? A. Facilitating a discussion among students about what it means to be an actor. B. Explaining to students how a typical production at the Globe Theatre would have been staged in Shakespeare's day. C. Having students research various topics related to Ancient Greek theatre and report their findings to the class. D. Telling students to create a list of everything they already know about musicals.B is the correct answer. In the example, the teacher provides explicit (direct) instruction to students through exposition.A student in a theatre class excels at performing monologues but struggles with scene work. several of the student's partners have complained that the student bosses them around and reacts harshly when they press their own ideas, and the student's acting in scenes is stiff and aloof. Which of the following instructional approaches will best lead to the overall improvement in the student's scene work? A. Fostering the student's listening and communication skills. B. Building the student's confidence as a performer. C. Leading a team-building exercise for the student and the student's current partner D. Impressing upon the student the importance of a good work ethic in the theatre profession.A is the correct answer. By fostering the student's listening and communication skills, the teacher will help the student learn to react constructively to others' ideas and be more connected to scene partners in performance.The anniversary of a significant local event is approaching, and the administration has asked a high school drama class to create a performance about the event for the community. The theatre students were not alive when the event occurred and do not understand its significance. Which of the following activities will best develop the students' understanding of how the event shaped the community while also providing authentic material with which to devise the performance? A. Asking students to keep individual journals in which they write about the event as if they were experiencing it. B. Showing students a film about a fictional community dealing with a similar event. C. Inviting local citizens who were directly affected by the event to speak to the students. D. Encouraging students to research circumstances leading up to the event using secondary sources.C is the correct answer. The activity will develop students' understanding of how the event shaped the community by allowing them to learn about the event from members of the community that it affected, and it will provide authentic material for the students to use in creating the performance.A high school theatre teacher has decided to stage a play by Anton Chekhov. The teacher invites a literature professor from the nearby community college to attend the first performance for the purpose of taking questions afterward from the audience about Chekhov's work. In this scenario, the teacher is organizing a A. Talk-back B. Guest lecture C. Feedback session D. Practical intensiveA is the correct answer. A talk-back is when a person or people with relevant expertise take questions from an audience after a performance.A high school theatre teacher is introducing students to open-source software for use in basic lighting design. Which of the following scenarios represents the most effective use of instructional technology to enhance students' learning about the software? A. The teacher tells students to conduct internet research at home or in a library about how to use the software and then bring in a list of the most useful Web sites they found. B. The teacher has students move their desks into a semicircle around a computer and then has students take turns completing an automated tutorial on the software while the rest of the group watches. C. The teacher shows students a projected presentation that illustrates in detail how basic tasks can be accomplished by using the software. D. The teacher brings students to the computer lab and, using a projection screen, demonstrates basic functions within the software for students to practice at their individual computers.D is the correct answer. The teacher is utilizing technology (e.g., the projector) to show students how to operate the software and allowing them to practice the operations individually, thus enhancing their learning.The MIDI Show Control (MSC) protocol is used in theatrical productions to A. Pan and fade prerecorded sound effects and music B. Create moving and color-changing lighting effects C. Synthesize and play instrumental compositions D. Automate and synchronize lighting and sound cues.D is the correct answer. The MIDI Show Control protocol allows for the automating and synchronizing of lighting and sound cues, such as timing a flash of light to coincide exactly with a crash of thunder.Which of the following assignments is most appropriate for encouraging high school theatre students to recognize connections between theatre and the visual arts? A. Having students perform a dramatic reading of Anne Sexton's poem "The Starry Night" and then compare the poem to the painting by Vincent Van Gogh. B. Taking students to a museum instead of a theatrical performance and having them write about the experience of seeing art in person. C. Having students study a famous painting and then create original performances inspired by the composition, style, and subject of the painting. D. Distributing high-quality images of artworks to students and having them incorporate the images into the set of a production.C is the correct answer. This activity will encourage students to see connections between theatre and the visual arts by challenging them to think about the overlapping roles of composition, style, and subject in both art forms.Which of the following plays would best serve to stimulate a discussion of racial tensions in the mid- to late-twentieth-century United States? A. Driving Miss Daisy B. Death of a Salesman C. The Laramie Project D. The CrucibleA is the correct answer. Driving Miss Daisy focuses on the conflict between African American and Jewish American cultures by exploring the relationship between an elderly Southern Jewish woman and her African American chauffeur.A high school teacher is using selections from Rent for scene work in class. Which of the following topics is most likely to contribute to students' understanding in the social context of the work's dramatic action? A. The influence of Giacomo Puccini on American musical theatre. B. The effects of the AIDS epidemic during the 1980's C. The present demographics of various neighborhoods in New York City.. D. The family history composer of Jonathan LarsonB is the correct answer. The AIDS epidemic, which became a major health crisis in the United States shortly before the setting of the musical (Rent is set in the early 1990's), provides the specific social circumstances of the plot's main action, while the other options do not directly relate to the action of the drama.A high school theatre teacher is using selections from the play A Raisin in the Sun for scene work in class. Which of the following cross-disciplinary activities will best strengthen students' understanding of the social forces motivations the play's action? A. In an activity focused on economics, the teacher has students convert dollar amounts spoken about in the play into present-day amounts. B. In an activity focused on literature, the teacher has the students read poems and selections from novels on the Harlem Renaissance. C. In an activity focused on music, the teacher has students research and listen to popular music of the 1950's. D. In an activity focused on geography, the teacher has students use maps to place the play's action in present day Chicago locations.A is the correct answer. The catalyst for change and conflict in the play is financial; for students to appreciate the power of money in the characters' lives, they need to understand the significance of the amounts being discussed.Which of the following plays illustrates the influence of visual art on the plot and themes of a dramatic work? A. How I Learned to Drive by Paula Vogel B. Six Degrees of Separation by John Guare C. Copenhagen by Michael Frayn D. Proof by David AuburnB is the correct answer. Guare's play uses a double-sided Cezanne painting, physically present on stage, to develop the play's thematic concerns. THe sale of another painting by Cezanne also figures prominently in early plot developments.A high school theatre teacher is planning a coordinating activity to reinforce students' learning about the American Revolution in their social studies and English classes. In their social studies classes, students are learning about the Declaration of Independence; in their English classes, they are reading Thomas Paine's Common Sense and learning about persuasive writing. Which of the following coordinating theatre activities is most directly related to students' learning in their other classes and therefore is most appropriate for the theatre teacher to use? A. Students will do research and create detailed costume collages about colonial American clothing and the uniforms of British troops. B. Students will conduct a director's analysis of the play Indians by American playwright Arthur Kopit. C. Students will perform scenes from a British theatrical adaptation of the novel Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe. D. Students will perform speeches and letters by key colonial American figures who played a role in the overthrow of British rule.D is the correct answer. It describes the theatre activity that most directly relates to the focus of students' learning in their social studies and English classes. The activity would help students creatively apply knowledge gained from both classes about key figures such as Jefferson and Paine while also allowing them to work with persuasive rhetoric through performance.At the start of a high school drama course, a teacher wants to assess students' baseline skills and abilities in acting. Given the teacher's goal, which of the following is the most appropriate to use as an assessment? A. A quiz on acting fundamentals such as a script analysis and stage movement. B. A movement exercise focused on demonstrating balance and flexibility C. An audition requiring both a prepared monologue and a cold reading. D. An extended essay about how the student views the actor's job.C is the correct answer. The audition will allow the teacher to assess students' baseline skills and abilities in two key acting scenarios, one in which the actor has been given time to prepare and the other in which the actor must rely on quick thinking and reaction.In which of the following scenarios is it unnecessary to obtain performance rights? A. Student actors in a drama class are planning to perform scenes from several recent films for a few invited guests. B. Students in an advanced theatre class are planning to present an evening of one-act plays consisting of one play per decade from the 1950's through the 1990's. C. A teacher is planning to stage a production of a little-known contemporary play with gender-blind casting. D. A public elementary school is planning to produce a children's adaptation of a Shakespeare play that was published in 1920.D is the correct answer. Because it was published in 1920, the adaptation is in the public domain and therefore does not require performing rights.A middle school theatre teacher is planning a movement exercise for students and is aware that one of the students has asthma, which of the following will help the teacher determine how best to ensure the student's safety during the exercise while allowing the student to participate as fully as possible? A. Asking the student for a list of the student's asthma medications B. Becoming familiar with the student's asthma action plan C. Advising a parent of the student about the exercise's physical demands D. Giving the student the option to watch and take notes on the exerciseB is the correct answer. An asthma action plan, developed with a doctor or health-care provider, typically contains information about an individual's symptoms, medications, and triggers, as well as actions to be taken in the event of an asthma attack. Becoming familiar with the student's asthma action plan will help the teacher determine how best to ensure the student's safety while involving the student as fully as possible in the exercise.A high school student who wants to pursue a career in theatrical design is researching college programs that provide appropriate training. In addition to speaking with a guidance counselor and consulting colleges' Web sites, which of the following activities will best support the student's research? A. Attending a career fair and speaking with recruiters about student life at the colleges. B. Interviewing designers who are currently working on productions at a nearby theatre. C. Attending a conference dedicated to contemporary theatre scholarship. D. Visiting colleges of interest and speaking with current design students and faculty.D is the correct answer. The student stands the best chance of learning about a given theatre program by visiting the college or university and speaking with current design students and faculty.Which of the following is an example of a jukebox musical? A. Caroline, or Change B. The Book of Mormon C. Avenue Q D. Mamma Mia!D is correct answer. The sore of a jukebox musical consists of previously released popular songs. The score of Mamma Mia! meets this criterion, consisting of hits by the pop group ABBA.Which of the following statements best describes the professional affiliation of playwrights in the United States today? A. Playwrights are members of the same guild that represents film and television writers. B. Playwrights are members of the same guild that represents composers and lyricists. C. Playwrights are members of the same union that represents actors and stage managers. D. Playwrights are the only theatre artists without an official guild or union.B is the correct answer. Playwrights are represented by the Dramatists Guild of America, which also represents composers, lyricists, and librettists. The organization's mission is to protect "writing for the living stage."A high school theatre teacher is planning a unit on techniques associated with devised theatre, in which students use source material as the basis for a theatrical adaptation. After students are introduced to the unit and read the source material, the most appropriate next step is for the students to A. Conduct research on any notable adaptations of the source material. B. Design a playing space suited to the adaptation. C. Explore the source material using improvisation. D. Audition for roles in the adaptation of the source material.C is the correct answer. Devised theatre is strongly associated with exploration through improvisation, and such exploration is therefore most appropriate as the next step in the unit. Exploration through improvisation will encourage students to begin engaging the source material through techniques of devised theatre.A high school student has been asked to present two contrasting monologues for an upcoming audition for a summer acting program. When the student is choosing the pair, which of the following contrasts will best guide the selection? A. The genres of the plays from which the two monologues come. B. The lengths of the two monologues. C. The age of the characters who speak the two monologues. D. The accents required of the characters who speak the two monologues.A is the correct answer. Audition programmers who require two contrasting monologues most often intend that they contrast by genre.A high school teacher is casting a production of Thornton Wilder's Our Town and has asked students to select a collection of poems that has similar thematic and tonal attributes as the play. The collection will be used as a source from which to select audition monologues. Which of the following works is most appropriate for the purpose? A. Shakespeare's sonnets B. Keats's odes C. Spoon River Anthology by Edgar Lee Masters D. And Still I Rise by Maya AngelouC is the correct answer. Edgar Lee Masters's Spoon River Anthology has been frequently used by acting teacher, notably by Sanford Meisner, and most closely reflects the themes and mood of Wilder's Our Town.In a beginning acting class, the teacher wants students to select performance material that will be useful for helping them develop an understanding of the relationship between characterization and a playwright's use of language. Which of the following types of performance material will most likely help beginning acting student achieve the learning goal? A. Monologues that require dialects B. Monologues from realistic plays C. Scenes from Shakespeare or Moliere D. Neutral or spare scenesB is the correct answer. Realistic monologues will be most accessible to beginning acting students while promoting the students' understanding of the relationship between a playwright's use of language and the development of character. Realistic works are frequently assigned to beginning acting students because realism dominates television and film and is therefore most familiar.Which of the following actors is famous for originating the role of Martha in Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? as well as for writing Respect for Acting, a seminal book on the craft of acting? A. Lee Strasberg B. Uta Hagen C. Sanford Meisner D. Julie TaymorB is the correct answer. Uta Hagen created the role of Martha in the original Broadway production of Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? as well as for writing Respect for Acting, a seminal book on the craft of acting.Which of the following master acting teachers is most closely associated with the psychological gesture, an outward action that expresses the inner feelings and personality of the character? A.Michael Chekhov B.Jerzy Grotowski C.Yevgeny Vakhtangov D.Stella AdlerA is the correct answer. The psychological gesture plays an important role in Michael Chekhov's system: it facilitates the mind-body connection that Chekhov believed is central to acting.Anne Bogart's technique known as Viewpoints focuses on which of the following? A.Developing a command of dramatic text through a series of interdependent training exercises B.Addressing movement in multiple areas related to time and space C.Mastering complicated acting conventions through deceptively simple games D.Changing people's understanding of theatre by eliminating distinctions between the audience's and the performer's spaceOption (B) is correct. Bogart's Viewpoints emphasize nine elements of time and space as a vocabulary for movement in performing.The terms "going up" and "going dry" describe a failure of which of the following acting skills? A.Articulation B.Memorization C.Observation D.ProjectionOption (B) is correct. The terms refer to any instance in which an actor has forgotten lines or blocking.A rehearsal in which actors voice their characters' inner monologues is used by a director primarily to gauge the effective development of A.subtext C.emphasis D.accentOption (A) is correct. A character's inner monologue is one facet of a role's subtext. Having an actor speak a character's inner monologue between the actual text of the role and/or during another actor's lines may allow a director to see the extent and articulation of the actor's development of the character's subtext, or gaps in that development.An actor is playing Laura Wingfield in a high school production of The Glass Menagerie. During rehearsals, the actor considers the extent to which a limp damages Laura's self-confidence and ability to gain independence. This aspect of the actor's work is best described as A.adjusting the sphere of attention B.finding an action for each beat of dialogue C.exploring the main obstacle faced by the character D.developing psychological gestures through leading questionsOption (C) is correct. Examining how Laura's limp damages her self-confidence and ability to gain independence—a central theme of The Glass Menagerie—is an exploration of the character's main obstacle and contributes to the actor's understanding of the character's superobjective.A director who is re-staging a play to conform as much as possible with the original production is most likely to use which of the following approaches when working with actors during the early phases of rehearsal? A.Organic blocking B.Collective creation C.Improvisation D.Prescriptive blockingOption (D) is correct. Prescriptive blocking, in which a director predetermines the actors' movements and dictates them to the actors in rehearsal, is the technique that would best reproduce a previous staging.The terms "spine" and "through line" refer to the development of which of the following elements of characterization? A.Reactions B.Traits C.Emotions D.ObjectivesOption (D) is correct. According to Stanislavski, the "spine" or "through line" of action in a play refers to the way a character's individual goals or objectives propel the character through the narrative arc of the play.An actor is cast in the role of a man who is being blackmailed. Because he has never been blackmailed in real life, the actor worries about portraying the fear and dread necessary to make the character believable. To produce the fear and dread, he focuses on a time in the past when a friend once threatened to reveal a secret that the actor had shared in confidence. Which of the following terms best describes the actor's approach? A.Actioning B.Substitution C.Sense memory D.The magic ifOption (B) is correct. Substitution calls for actors to effectively replace the fictional reality of scenes or dramatic circumstances with elements from their own lives.Which of the following elements of vocal production does an actor specifically manipulate to create stage dialects and accents? A.Vowel sounds, pitch, and rhythm patterns B.Fricative, affricative, and nasal articulations C.Head, mouth, and chest resonances D.Orthography, syntax, and semantic rulesOption (A) is correct. Actors are taught to create stage dialects or accents by making systematic changes to patterns of sounds (e.g., vowel substitutions), vocal pitch, and speech rhythms.Which of the following anatomical features specifically creates vocal sound? A.Diaphragm B.Larynx C.Lungs D.Soft palateOption (B) is correct because the larynx, also known as the voice box, is the most significant anatomical feature in the production of vocal sound. It is the seat of the vocal cords, which turn airflow into sound.Which of the following aspects of vocal production is most directly addressed by exercises intended to help actors avoid speaking in monotone? A.Projection B.Resonance C.Articulation D.PitchOption (D) is correct. Pitch is the position of a single sound in relation to a range of sounds, so exercises designed to help actors avoid speaking in unvaried successions of sounds most directly address the vocal aspect of pitch.In the context of teaching and learning voice and speech for the stage, to what does the acronym IPA refer? A.Integral Pitch Awareness B.International Phonetic Alphabet C.Impaired Phonological Amplification D.International Polyglot AssociationOption (B) is correct. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a phonetic notation system that uses a set of symbols to represent each distinct sound that exists in human spoken language. It is a tool often used by actors to prepare for roles that require accents or to understand difficult pronunciations.A high school is presenting a production of Shakespeare's Macbeth that includes choreographed swordplay under simulated torchlight. To best ensure the safety of the performers, each performance should be preceded by a drill B.fight call C.sound check D.cue-to-cueOption (B) is correct. A fight call is a scheduled onstage rehearsal during which actors practice stage combat before the beginning of each performance. The actors often mark the fight choreography, practicing in slow motion before rehearsing at actual speed.In theatre productions, stage combat is typically planned and overseen by a A.weapons master B.stunt performer C.fight director D.ballistics expertOption (C) is correct. Fight directors are typically responsible for planning and overseeing staged combat in theatre.Which of the following pieces of advice will best prepare students for doing cold readings during auditions? A.Sacrifice all eye contact to concentrate on performing the script as written. B.When you make a mistake, pause, apologize, and start again from the top. C.Listen to the lines spoken by the person reading with you and react to them. D.Adhere to the script as it is written in order to avoid minor errors in interpretation.Option (C) is correct. During a cold reading, it is important for actors to listen to the lines spoken by the people reading with them and to react to those lines. Reaction is incredibly important in acting, and students should be advised to demonstrate this ability at auditions.Two students are auditioning for the lead role in a production. Student A has had many minor roles in the past and is dependable when working on productions but auditions poorly. Student B is auditioning for the first time and auditions very well but is otherwise unknown to the director. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step for the director to take in casting the role? A.Casting Student A because the student has more experience than Student B B.Casting Student B because the student auditioned better than Student A C.Scheduling callbacks to gather more information about the two actors D.Reopening casting auditions to allow for more options for filling the roleOption (C) is correct. This option allows the director to learn more about the capabilities of each actor without the additional time and expense of reopening the audition process.Which of the following pieces of advice is most appropriate for an acting teacher to give students regarding how they should behave at the end of a professional audition? A.Do not leave the room until the people conducting the audition have asked you to make an adjustment. B.Thank the people conducting the audition and leave quietly. C.Turn away from the people conducting the audition as soon as you have finished speaking. D.Engage the people conducting the audition in polite conversation so they get a sense of your personality.Option (B) is correct. The most professional behavior at the end of an audition is simply to say "thank you" and depart from the audition area, unless the people conducting the audition ask the actor to stay and do more.To understand audience response to theatrical productions, the director must have an excellent understanding of stage conventions. Which of the following is the best definition of a stage convention? A.The physical arrangement of an audience in relation to actors B.The action generated by the conflicting forces within a play C.A central visual image that unifies all of the design elements D.A meaningful contrivance that is accepted on the part of the audienceOption (D) is correct because a stage convention is a significant artificial construct that is accepted as such by the audience. The fourth wall, the conceptual barrier between the actors and the audience that permits the actors to perform as if the audience were not there, is an example of a stage convention.A middle school theatre teacher is preparing for a production of Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat. Which of the following will best help the teacher make working on the production appeal to students who have an interest in graphic novels? A.Designing the playbill for the production in the style of a graphic novel B.Using lighting and costume to simulate the effect of the production being in black and white like the pages of a black-and-white graphic novel C.Incorporating framed screens, projections, and tableaux to mimic the illustrated panels of a graphic novel D.Ordering a graphic novel adaptation of the book of Genesis for the school library that includes the story of Joseph and the coat of many colorsOption (C) is correct. Using framed screens, projections, and tableaux in the production will invoke a fundamental narrative device of graphic novels: the use of illustrated panels to tell a story. Given the centrality of illustrated panels to the graphic novel form, the choice is likely to help the teacher achieve the goal of making the production appeal to students who enjoy graphic novels.A middle school teacher's goals for a theatre production are to help students develop realistic acting skills with scene partners and to present an age-appropriate play for an audience of other middle school students. Which of the following plays is most suited to the teacher's goals? A.August: Osage County by Tracy Letts B.Spoon River Anthology by Edgar Lee Masters (adapted by Charles Aidman) C.Twelve Angry Jurors by Reginald Rose D.A Midsummer Night's Dream by William ShakespeareOption (C) is correct. Reginald Rose's Twelve Angry Jurors features realistic scenes for multiple actors and is widely considered appropriate for middle school students.An audience should expect to move from place to place when attending a traditional performance of a A.romantic grand opera B.medieval passion play C.classical tragedy D.neoclassical balletOption (B) is correct. Many medieval passion or mystery plays are still performed in stations, with the audience moving from one playing area to another over the course of the play's action.The audience is expected to vocally express its pleasure to the actors onstage during the play's action at a traditional performance of A.The Trojan Women by Euripides B.Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare C.The Love Suicides at Sonezaki by Chikamatsu Monzaemon D.Death and the King's Horseman by Wole SoyinkaOption (C) is correct. Originally written as a Bunraku play, The Love Suicides at Sonezaki is often performed in the modern Kabuki theatre, where audiences often express their pleasure by calling out the hereditary stage names of actors at certain prescribed times during the play's action.Which of the following terms describes a type of performance in which actors present social problems and audience members are encouraged to interrupt with solutions? A.Theatre of the absurd B.Forum theatre C.Living Newspapers D.VaudevilleOption (B) is correct. Developed by Augusto Boal as part his Theatre of the Oppressed, Forum theatre encourages audiences to interrupt a performance in order to offer solutions to the social problems being represented by actors.Exercises that help actors evoke sights, sounds, and other perceptions in order to connect viscerally with the experience of a character are used to develop which of the following? A.Affective memory B.Sense memory C.Given circumstances D.Physical actionOption (B) is correct because sense memory refers to the recollection of physical sensations surrounding emotional events (instead of the emotions themselves). Thus, sense memory exercises focus on retrieving memories related to the senses, such as sight and hearing.According to Viola Spolin, which of the following types of acting exercise can best be used to orient students before introducing them to more advanced techniques of improvisation? A.Gibberish games B.Who Am I? C.Singing Dialogue D.Mirror gamesOption (D) is correct. Mirror games are part of the early orientation sequence of Viola Spolin's Improvisation for the Theater.An improvisational exercise calls for performers to work in pairs to complete an everyday task, such as polishing a pair of shoes. One performer must give precise directions, and the other must follow those directions. If a problem arises, both performers start the task again from the beginning. The process continues until the everyday task is completed. Which of following student skills is best developed by this acting exercise? A.Quantitative reasoning B.Stress management C.Conflict resolution D.General communicationOption (D) is correct. The exercise is most appropriate for developing and refining students' general communication skills because it is designed to foster precise verbal expression and attentive listening.A middle school theatre teacher asks students to write a short essay about their experiences working on a recent school production in response to the question, "How did you feel about collaborating with your classmates on the show?" Which of the following best describes the exercise? A.Aesthetic criticism B.Guided self-reflection C.Participatory awareness D.Performance feedbackOption (B) is correct because guided self-reflection specifically refers to writing assignments that encourage students to reflect on personal experiences.When using an approach to acting based on the work of Stanislavski, a teacher helps an actor to identify operative words in dialogue. This approach will help the actor to achieve results that are most similar to which of the following non-Stanislavskian strategies? A.Giving the actor a line reading B.Asking the actor to play a specific emotion C.Urging the actor to develop specific lines of business D.Encouraging the actor to speak in an overtly stylized fashionOption (A) is correct. Sometimes there are certain words that must be stressed in dialogue in order for actors to meaningfully present the playwright's text. While one method of achieving this result is to provide the actor with a line reading, this technique is generally not endorsed by schools of acting based on the work of Stanislavski, as it is thought to result in the actor simply imitating the director with no real understanding of why the line should be delivered in this manner.At the end of a unit on acting, students in a middle school theatre class are presenting final scenes to their classmates and the teacher. The teacher wants the students to provide feedback, commenting on each other's work using the appropriate acting vocabulary, which they have been learning throughout the unit. The teacher wants the activity to reinforce student understanding of the vocabulary. Which of the following strategies for structuring the feedback will best meet the teacher's goal? A.Commenting on the first scene to be presented, then directing students to model their comments after those of the teacher B.Distributing a handout listing key acting terms and their definitions, and asking students to look at it before they comment on a classmate's work C.Leading students in a review of key acting terms, then specifying that they must use at least one different term when they comment on each classmate's work D.Explaining that students must use key acting terms in their comments, then assessing students afterward based on the accuracy with which they used the termsOption (C) is correct. This strategy reinforces students' understanding of the key terms by giving them an opportunity to participate in a review, and it directs them to incorporate the terms into their comments.A high school theatre teacher wants to provide acting students with a specific tool for evaluating their scene work and the scene work of their classmates. Which of the following methods will provide this tool while ensuring that students continue to learn throughout the evaluation process? A.Students each develop a checklist of criteria based on their own knowledge and use it to evaluate their classmates' performances. B.Students each write a detailed essay responding to one of their classmates' performances before writing an evaluation of their own performance. C.The teacher leads students in a discussion following each performance, and the students are required to provide comments about their classmates' performances as well as their own. D.The teacher guides students in developing a common rubric based on acting qualities discussed in class, and the students use the rubric to evaluate their classmates' performances as well as their own.Option (D) is correct because it is the only choice that involves the creation of a specific tool (the common rubric) for students to use to evaluate their own work and the work of their classmates. Furthermore, the teacher's guidance in creating the tool ensures that the criteria being used by students are appropriate and that students' learning is ongoing.In technical theatre terminology, which of the following terms is used to describe a stage floor? A.Grid B.Prow C.Deck D.StallOption (C) is correct. Because the skill set of stage rigging was so similar to nautical rigging and because many stagehands in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century theatres were former sailors, the term "deck" was used to refer to the floor of the stage among theatre technicians. This term remains in use today.A high school theatre director is considering which students will play the lead roles in a forthcoming production of Oklahoma! The selection of actors for the roles is referred to as A.auditions B.callbacks C.casting D.interviewingOption (C) is correct. The process of selecting actors for roles is referred to as casting, which may include auditions, callbacks, and interviews as part of the overall selection process.Which of the following types of rehearsal is typically the last before the audience sees the production? A.Blocking B.Technical C.Dress D.Run-throughOption (C) is correct. A dress rehearsal is usually presented immediately before or close to the time before a production opens so the cast and crew can get the experience of performing under actual performance conditions, with full costuming, makeup, props, sound, lighting, and technical effects.Which of the following theatrical terms describes a play that is written specifically to be performed by a pair of actors? A.Couplet B.Dithyramb C.Doubling D.Two-handerOption (D) is correct. "Two-hander" is the term given to a play with only two main roles, such as Edward Albee's The Zoo Story, Amiri Baraka's Dutchman, Donald L. Coburn's The Gin Game, David Mamet's Oleanna, and Suzan-Lori Parks's Topdog/Underdog.Analyzing and breaking down a script is most useful for helping students work on A.focus and concentration B.movement and blocking C.determining beats of action D.developing sensory recallOption (C) is correct. Script analysis, specifically breaking a script down to its component parts, is most useful for determining the units of action (beats) necessary for understanding characters' objectives and obstacles.Which of the following individuals is primarily responsible for organizing aid for an audience member who has become ill? A.Box office manager B.House manager C.Company manager D.Production stage managerOption (B) is correct. While the box office manager or ushers may be enlisted to help an audience member who is ill, the responsibility for organizing aid ultimately falls to the house manager.Which of the following individuals generally has the most influence on the blocking choices made by the director? A.Scenic designer B.Technical director C.Casting director D.Properties managerOption (A) is correct. A scenic designer is responsible for the design and implementation of all scenic elements, which directly affect how a director may block a scene.Running a cue-to-cue most often occurs at what point during the traditional rehearsal process of a fully staged production? A.Before the table read B.Before the first blocking rehearsal C.Before the first run-through D.Before the final dress rehearsalOption (D) is correct. A cue-to-cue (in which most of the dialogue is skipped in order to rehearse only those the parts of a performance that include technical cues) occurs during technical rehearsals, which happen after the first run-through but before the final dress rehearsal.Which of the following is the term for an actor who understudies several roles simultaneously in a single theatre production? A.Swing B.Captain C.Extra D.SuperOption (A) is correct. A swing learns several parts in a production and can substitute for any of these when a regular actor is unable to perform.A production's call sheet will include information about which of the following? A.Specific moments when lighting changes occur B.Specific lighting instruments that will be used C.Specific contact information for the cast and the crew D.Specific blocking and activities to be performedOption (C) is correct. A call sheet is usually prepared by stage management, distributed to performers and technical personnel, and posted backstage on the call-board. It is used so that cast and crew may be contacted during all phases of a production, and it is not to be confused with any paperwork that a stage manager prepares for prompting actors or calling a show's cues.Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly prevalent in stage lighting equipment. A major benefit of using LEDs is that light of any color or hue may be obtained, even though each individual LED produces only one color. By which of the following processes can light of any color be created using LED lighting instruments? A.Additive color mixing B.Complementary color mixing C.Subtractive color mixing D.Color media filteringOption (A) is correct. Additive color mixing is the process by which the light emitted by red, green, and blue LEDS in LED lighting instruments is blended to produce virtually any color or hue.Which of the following is a tool that scene designers can use to communicate complete three-dimensional design representations to production personnel for scenery construction? A.CAD B.WAV C.FLAC D.IATSEOption (A) is correct. Computer-Aided (or Assisted) Design (or Drafting), known as CAD, has revolutionized the field of theatrical design as more and more designers are becoming proficient at using such tools for aesthetic reasons and for communicating with production personnel.Which of the following actions by a director best ensures the successful development of a production concept for a play or musical? A.Allowing designers to generate varied visual and aural ideas before settling on one of them B.Coaching designers to expand their artistic capabilities during the production process C.Collaborating with designers to create a unified vision for the production D.Encouraging designers to follow the original stage directions given in the script or scoreOption (C) is correct. A unified vision that is developed collaboratively by the director and the designers is the foundation of a successful theatre production.Which of the following theatrical terms best describes the characters with the smallest speaking roles in Shakespeare's plays, such as Fleance in Macbeth or the Soothsayer in Julius Caesar ? A.Hirelings B.Supernumeraries C.Bit parts D.Spear carriersOption (C) is correct. Bit parts are the smallest speaking roles in a Shakespearean play. They are distinguished from supernumeraries and spear carriers (the latter is a dismissive term), who do not have lines, and from hirelings, performers who receive a small stipend and can play roles of any size.A director of a student production is employing improvisation techniques to achieve stage compositions that will feel natural and organic. Which of the following practices is most likely to undermine the director's goal? A.Giving the actors a line reading B.Asking the actors to play a particular emotion C.Demonstrating desired blocking and gestures D.Guiding the actors toward objectives and actionsOption (C) is correct. Improvisational blocking in early rehearsals allows actors to discover their characters' physical lives in an organic manner. If the director dictates predetermined blocking or demonstrates desired blocking for actors, the actors are less likely to explore the physical dynamics of the scene, and the resulting stage compositions are less likely to appear natural and organic.In developing the rehearsal schedule for a production of a Shakespeare play, a director will most likely use which of the following tools? A.A call-board B.A promptbook C.A scenic ground plan D.A character/scene breakdownOption (D) is correct. A character/scene breakdown facilitates the development of an efficient schedule because it allows the director to know which actors are required in specific parts (acts, scenes, etc.) of the play.During the production of a play, an ensemble of actors meets several times to read and discuss the script before meeting again to plan and establish stage movements. The practice of reading and discussing the play is most often referred to as A.mask work B.table work C.blocking rehearsal D.working rehearsalOption (B) is correct. Table work is the practice of exploring a play before blocking and working rehearsals.Prior to casting a production, which of the following activities best helps a director to plan the blocking and composition of specific moments in a play? A.Creating storyboards B.Playing theatre games C.Assembling a collage of words and images inspired by the play D.Keeping a journal of ideas about the play's central themesOption (A) is correct. Creating storyboards, a series of panels on which sketches are arranged, helps the director visualize the layout of specific moments in a play.During the first onstage rehearsal of a production, after scenery has been assembled for use by the actors, a scenic designer realizes that the entire fly-rail system can be seen from the house. In this circumstance, which of the following was the designer's drafting package most likely missing? A.Sight-line drawings B.Perspective drawings C.Front-elevation drawings D.Figural drawingsOption (A) is correct. Sight-line drawings provide information to the technical crew about where masking should be placed to keep the audience from seeing backstage.A properties artisan is beginning a new project that requires the use of potentially hazardous paints and glues with which the artisan is unfamiliar. Which of the following approaches is most appropriate for ensuring proper handling of the products? A.Reading the packaging inserts to determine the chemical contents of each product B.Consulting the Safety Data Sheet for each product C.Researching the most common uses of any chemicals contained in the products D.Discussing the products with the scenic designer or prop masterOption (B) is correct. Safety Data Sheets (SDS) provide the most complete and correct safety informationFor an upcoming production of Guys and Dolls, a high school director intends to rent scenic drops from a rental company. To ensure their proper use in accordance with national safety standards, which of the following should be provided in a rental agreement for drops? A.Sufficiently heavy chains to weight the bottom of the drops B.Brand-new rope ties for attaching the drops to the battens C.Certification of the drops' flame-retardant treatment D.On-site rental personnel to ensure the drops' proper installationOption (C) is correct. Flame-retardant certification is a safety standard developed by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and provides important information to authorities about what processes have been used to retard flame, how the drops will react to fire, and when the drops were last treated.A lighting designer typically uses a follow spot to A.color a beam of light B.focus a beam of light onto a particular area C.create a silhouette pattern using a beam of light D.increase or decrease the intensity of a beam of lightOption (B) is correct. The primary characteristic of a follow spot is its ability to focus light onto different areas of the stage during a performance, typically to follow actors' movements.Which of the following lighting instruments is adapted from the lens created for nineteenth-century lighthouses and is used to create beams of light with soft edges? A.A PAR lamp B.A scoop C.A Fresnel spotlight D.An ellipsoidal spotlightOption (C) is correct. A Fresnel spotlight, adapted from the lens created for nineteenth-century lighthouses, produces a beam of light with soft edges.During the early phases of a production, which of the following is the most important creative concern for a sound designer? A.Determining incidental music B.Ensuring adequate amplification C.Deciding on speaker placement D.Reinforcing the play's actionOption (D) is correct. A sound designer's creative concerns (as opposed to technical ones) include reinforcing the action and super-objective of the play and evoking a specific atmosphere or mood for a production.For an upcoming production of Lynn Nottage's Ruined, a designer analyzes the script's dialogue and stage directions in order to understand where and when the play takes place. This designer is determining the play's A.concept B.subtext C.artistic intent D.given circumstancesOption (D) is correct. In script analysis, where and when a play takes place are considered part of a play's given circumstances.A scenic designer has rendered a large repeating pattern as a motif for a production of a period comedy. Which of the following techniques will best allow the production's charge scenic artist to reproduce the large pattern to simulate wallpaper on the stage? A.Pouncing B.Glazing C.Cartooning D.GriddingOption (A) is correct. In scene painting, the pouncing technique is used to create large repeating patterns.A high school teacher is working with a group of students to construct new costumes for a production of a Shakespeare play. Which of the following approaches is most appropriate for extending the life of the costumes by enabling students with various body types to wear them in future productions? A.Building the costumes a size larger than required B.Creating ample seam allowances in the costumes C.Constructing two versions of each costume in different sizes D.Saving scrap fabric from each costumeOption (B) is correct. Constructing the costumes with ample seam allowances will allow sufficient fabric for the garments to be altered.During the final dress rehearsal for a production, a designer observes that the overall coloring of the makeup on a specific actor is too yellow under existing lighting conditions. Which of the following makeup application procedures best solves the problem? A.Brushing off excess powder from the face B.Stippling the entire face with another color C.Making the highlights and shadows more intense D.Applying more blush to the cheek areasOption (B) is correct. Stippling the entire face allows one to change the overall coloring of the makeup without losing the highlights and shadows developed in earlier applications.Panniers, or side hoops, would be used in a historically accurate costume plot for a play set during which of the following time periods? A.Fourteenth century B.Sixteenth century C.Eighteenth century D.Nineteenth centuryOption (C) is correct. Panniers, or side hoops, were a style of women's undergarments worn in the eighteenth century and originating the century before.Tragedy, comedy, melodrama, and farce are all considered A.dramatic genres B.dramatic plots C.theatrical conventions D.theatrical stylesOption (A) is correct. A dramatic genre specifies a type of play, such as those listed, and refers to the play's overall tone or effect on the reader or audience, irrespective of the play's specific plot or the theatrical conventions and styles that may be used to communicate the plot to an audience.Which of the following plays directly addresses thematic issues of class and socioeconomic status by questioning social codes and mobility among social classes? A.Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare B.The Miser by Molière C.Antigone by Sophocles D.Pygmalion by George Bernard ShawOption (D) is correct. Like many of his other plays, Shaw's Pygmalion (1913), as well as its polemical preface, investigates the role of wealth, class, and political power; the play depicts the class differences among its characters and their social circumstances, directly questioning social codes and the possibility of mobility among social classes.Which of the following elements of dramatic structure is most directly associated with religion or religious ritual? A.Cliffhanger B.Denouement C.Deus ex machina D.ExpositionOption (C) is correct. In ancient Greek tragedies, which were performed as part of a religious festival, a deus ex machina referred to a god that would appear on stage by way of a mechanical crane in order to determine the final outcome of the drama; in time, the term came to designate a contrived conclusion to a play.Which of the following plays caused a scandal in the nineteenth century because of its focus on women's rights and its depiction of a woman who chooses to leave her husband? A.George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. Warren's Profession B.Anton Chekhov's The Seagull C.Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House D.Alfred Jarry's Ubu RoiOption (C) is correct. Although it seems tame by contemporary standards, A Doll's House caused a scandal at the time it was first produced because of its focus on women's rights and its depiction of a woman who chooses to leave her husband.Which of the following playwrights is most generally considered a writer of social satire? A.Henrik Ibsen B.Oscar Wilde C.Eugène Ionesco D.Neil SimonOption (B) is correct. Oscar Wilde wrote satirical comedies that were critical of English society in the late nineteenth century.During final performances of assigned scenes in an acting class, which of the following behaviors should the teacher most discourage from students in the classroom audience? A.Applauding at the end of a scene B.Laughing at suitable moments in a scene C.Commenting aloud about the quality of the performance D.Taking unprompted written notes about the performanceOption (C) is correct. Students commenting aloud will interfere with the progress of the performance. In most cases, any talking by nonperformers during a scene is considered disruptive and should be discouraged.Which of the following was part of the typical costume worn by a man on the stage during the English Restoration? A.A simple tunic known as a chiton B.Breeches decorated with lace and ribbons C.Spats adorned with gold buttons D.An elaborate collar known as a ruffOption (B) is correct. English Restoration theatre often saw ribbons, lace, and silk adorn men's breeches, which are short trousers that are fastened just below the knee.In performances of classical Japanese Noh theatre, the short, comical plays known as kyōgen have the same structural function as which of the following types of Western theatre? A.Intermezzi B.Comedy of manners C.Pantomime D.Theatre of the absurdOption (A) is correct. Kyōgen serve as interludes between the main action of Noh performances in the same structural fashion as intermezzi in Italian Renaissance performances of opera or plays.A major characteristic of wayang kulit performances in Indonesia is that they A.take place only once a year during a spring festival B.feature performers wearing elaborate makeup and masks C.combine acrobatics, dance, and spectacle into a single performance D.tell stories using shadows cast on a screen by two-dimensional puppetsOption (D) is correct. Wayang kulit, which is derived from the Javanese word for shadow, is one of the foremost puppet traditions in the world.Which of the following is most closely associated with Elizabethan theatre? A.Comedy of manners B.Revenge tragedy C.Mystery plays D.Sentimental comedyOption (B) is correct. One of the most popular and sustained genres of drama performed in the Elizabethan theatre was revenge tragedy, of which Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy and Shakespeare's Hamlet are notable examples.Which of the following French playwrights is known for inciting a controversy among the members of the French Academy regarding the rules of Neoclassicism? A.Corneille B.Molière C.Beaumarchais D.RacineOption (A) is correct. The controversy surrounding Pierre Corneille's drama Le Cid (1637) became a touchstone for the development of Neoclassicism in European drama.During the Italian Renaissance, Giacomo Torelli developed the chariot-and-pole system as an improvement over the wing-and-groove system. Both of these systems were devised to painted scenic flats three-dimensional scenic objects C.change painted scenic flats D.change three-dimensional scenic objectsOption (C) is correct. Torelli's chariot-and-pole system allowed all of the painted scenic flats situated in grooves at the sides of a proscenium stage to change simultaneously and to slide horizontally with the effort of fewer stagehands than the wing-and-groove method required.Which of the following is the name for the building that was erected behind the central playing area of an ancient Greek theatre to provide backstage space and a background for the performance? A.Skene B.Mansion C.Tiring-house D.Scaenae fronsOption (A) is correct. The skene, or scene building, was first a temporary fixture made of wood, then a permanent structure made of stone; it was erected behind the central playing space, or orchestra (literally, "dancing place"), of ancient Greek theatres.Which of the following is the contemporary American theatre company most known for creating stage adaptations of famous novels such as William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury, F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, and Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises ? A.Elevator Repair Service B.Tectonic Theater Project C.The Wooster Group D.Ontological-Hysteric TheaterOption (A) is correct. Elevator Repair Service is a contemporary theatre company celebrated for its creative interpretations of American novels.Which of the following contemporary theatre companies is best known for creating site-specific or immersive productions? A.Complicite B.DV8 Physical Theatre C.Cheek by Jowl D.PunchdrunkOption (D) is correct. Punchdrunk is one of several British theatre companies known for creating immersive productions (e.g., Sleep No More), in which audiences move, or promenade, through nontraditional spaces.Which of the following American theatre directors is most associated with the concept and theatrical style of postmodernism? A.Robert Wilson B.Susan Stroman C.Harold Prince D.Elia KazanOption (A) is correct. The style of Robert Wilson's experimental and avant-garde theatre productions from the 1960s, with their visual austerity and their focus on manipulating linguistic and temporal perception, has long been considered part of the postmodern aesthetic, which encourages audiences to reach their own understanding of a work rather than receiving a prescribed meaning.According to Aristotle, a tragic plot should culminate in a reversal of the tragic hero's fortune. His term for this process is A.recognition B.hubris C.catharsis D.peripeteiaOption (D) is correct. According to Aristotle's Poetics, plots must include at least one major peripeteia, or turning point (reversal), in the action undergone by the protagonist; in tragedy, this reversal is inevitably from good fortune to bad.In classical dramatic structure, the part of the plot that provides essential background information is known as the A.exposition B.attack C.climax D.denouementOption (A) is correct. Exposition occurs toward the beginning of a play's action, and describes information about the past, about characters and their motivations, and about any information necessary to understand the rising action of a plot.Which of the following is an element of Bertolt Brecht's epic theatre? A.Rejecting the great theatrical works of the past B.Using title cards that announce the ending of a scene C.Placing the audience physically in the center of the spectacle D.Creating circular dialogue and plot structuresOption (B) is correct. One of Brecht's theatrical devices for creating aesthetic distance was the use of placards describing the scene in a title that gave away the scene's ending so as to forestall suspense.Medieval morality plays can be best described as which of the following? A.Stories taken from church histories of the moral actions of saints B.Stories intended to teach moral lessons in allegorical form C.Stories adapted from the Bible that underscore moral teachings D.Stories based on folk traditions adapted to demonstrate moral principlesOption (B) is correct. Morality plays, such as Everyman, were didactic dramas whose characters were allegorical and often represented virtues and faults.The two types of comedy that were the mainstay of theatre in Restoration and eighteenth-century England and that were defined in an essay by playwright Oliver Goldsmith are A.slapstick and farce B.Old Comedy and New Comedy C.laughing comedy and sentimental comedy D.commedia dell'arte and commedia eruditaOption (C) is correct. Goldsmith's essay, written in 1773, was the first to distinguish the effects of earlier laughing comedy, which "should excite our laughter by ridiculously exhibiting the follies of the lower part of mankind," from later sentimental comedy, in which "the virtues of private life are exhibited, rather than the vices exposed."