34 terms

Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
science
an organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world; a body of knowledge; a way of looking at the world
observing
the act of noticing and describing events or processes using the 5 senses
inferring
logical interpretation based on what scientists already know and the data collected
hypothesizing
making a scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested in ways that support or reject it (never "proven")
controlled experiment
experiment in which only one variable is changed
organizing data
putting data into an order to reveal patterns; tables, graphs and maps
independent variable
variable that is deliberately changed by experimenter (IV); aka manipulated variable
dependent variable
variable that is observed and changes in response to the independent variable (DV); aka responding variable
control group
exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group except for one independent variable
data
careful, detailed observations
quantitative data
observations made by counting or measuring; number data
qualitative data
descriptive observations; in words
measuring
carefully determining the dimensions of an object using the metric system
collecting data
recording observations in a journal, with camera, or sound recording device in an attempt to avoid bias
classifying
grouping objects according to shared characteristic using similarities and differences
experimenting
testing of a hypothesis under controlled conditions
communicating
sharing ideas via scientific conferences, publishing in scientific journals or presenting scientific posters; required for peer review, recognition and funding
modeling
representations of processes or concepts that show relationships between data; mathematical (y=mx+b), verbal (what goes up must come down) or visual (a globe)
analyzing data
determining if the data collected is reliable and whether it supports or refutes the hypothesis
scientific methods
a flexible approach that allows scientists to use whichever methods that suit their work; must be logical to and repeatable by other scientists
theory
a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypotheses and allows predictions about new situations to be made
bias
particular preference or point of view that is personal rather than scientific
biology
study of life
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; genetic code containing complex information needed to grow, live and reproduce
peer review
important process for sharing and evaluating scientific work
skepticism
willingness to question existing ideas, refusing to accept explanations without evidence
open-mindedness
willingness to accept different ideas that may not agree with your own thinking
stimulus
change in the environment; a signal to which an organism responds
sexual reproduction
cells from two different parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism
asexual reproduction
single organism produces offspring identical to itself; one cell becomes two cells
homeostasis
keeping internal environment relatively stable even when external conditions change (ex. human body temperature stays at 98.6 degrees F)
metabolism
combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
metric system
base 10 decimal system used to make scientific measurements (liters, grams, meters, Celsius)
biosphere
literally means "living planet"