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39 terms

Ch. 3 Key Terminology

STUDY
PLAY
Allegory
a universal symbol; personified abstraction; ex: death portrayed as "grim reaper"
anaphora
repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses
apostrophe
address or invocation to something that is inanimate
archetype
recurrent designs, patterns of action, character types, themes or images which are identifiable in a wide range of literature; ex: femme fatale
asyndenton
a style in which conjunctions are omitted, usually producing a fast-paced, more rapid prose; ex: Caesar's famous lines, "I came, I saw, I conquered"
chiasmus
figure of speechin which the order of the terms in the first of two parallel clauses is reversed in the second; ex: "Pleasure's a sin, and sometimes sin's a pleasure"
conceit
a comparison of two unlikely things that is drawn out within a piece of literature, in particular an extended metaphor within the poem; ex: Hair might be spun gold, teeth like stars or pearls, etc.
connotation
what is suggested by a word, apart from what it explicity describes, often referred to as the implied meaning of a word; ex: awesome, sweet, gay, f*ggot
dactylic
stressed syllable followed by two unstressed ones; ex: can-a-da, hol-i-day, cel-e-brate
denotation
a direct and specific meaning; the "dictionary meaning" of a word
elegy
lament upon the death of a particular person
enjambment
the continuation of a sentence from one line or couplet of a poem to the next
exposition
part of the structure that sets the scene, introduces and identifies characters, and establishes the situation at the beginning of a story or play
denouement
falling action
iambic
unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one; ex: for-give, re-morse, re-peat
juxtaposition
the location of one thing as being adjacent with another; this creates a certain effect, reveals an attitude or accomplishes some purpose of the writer
litote
figure of speech that emphasizes its subject by conscious understatement; ex: "not bad" as a comment about something especially well done
metaphor
DOES NOT use "like" or "as"
meter
the more or less regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry
metonymy
figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something as in "The White House announced today..."
motif
recurrent device, formula, or situation that often serves as a signal for the appearance of a character or event; ex: in M. Night Shamalan's movies cold and/or red doorknobs signal presence of ghosts
paradox
statement that seems contradictory but may actually be true; ex: "fight for peace"
parallel structure
the use of similar forms in writing for nouns, verbs, phrases, or thoughts; ex: lying, crying, dying no more
periodic sentence
a sentence which is not grammatically correct until the end; ex: "The child, who looked as if she were being chased by demons, ran."
petrarchan sonnet
divides the poem into one section of 8 lines (octave) and a second section of six (sestet); 8 then 6--patriarchal
scansion
the analysis of verse to show its meter
shakespearean sonnet
divides poem into three units of four lines each and a final unit of two lines; usually abab cdcd efef gg
shaped verse
shaped to look like an object; ex: Ellen Hopkin's novels
simile
DOES use "like" or "as"
stock character
a character who appears in a number of stories or plays; ex: cruel stepmother, femme fatale, etc.
synecdoche
when a part is used to signify a whole; ex: "All hands on deck!", "head of cattle"
terza rima
"three rhymes"; verse form consisting of three line stanzas in which the second line of each rhymes with the first and third of the next (or 2 line stanzas where second line of each rhymes)
trochee
stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one; ex: car-wash, out-side, day-ton, off-spring
villanelle
verse form consisting of 19 lines divided into 6 stanzas--five tercets (3 lines) and one quatrain (4 lines)
idolatrous
blindly or excessively devoted or adoring
mendacious
given to lying
pathos
a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow)
pedantic
used to describe writing that borders on lecturing; marked by a narrow focus on or display of learning especially its trivial aspects
amorous
inclined toward or displaying love