101 terms

Chemistry: The Central Science Chapter 2

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Atoms
The smallest units of an element that can combine with other elements
Subatomic particles
Electron, neutron, proton
Cathode ray: Thomson
Radiation originating from negative electrode (the cathode) that is attracted by negatively charged plates; "discovery" of electron
Oil-drop experiment: Millikan
Small drops of oil, which pick up extra electrons, fall between two electrically charged plates. Voltage of plates affected their rates of fall, which was measured and recorded.
Radioactivity
Spontaneous emission of radiation by atoms; gives further evidence that the atom has a substructure
Plum Pudding model: J. J. Thomson
Small electrons embedded in an overall positively charged sphere
Gold foil experiment: Rutherford
When a beam of alpha particles strikes gold foil, most pass straight through, but some are scattered; the reason for this is presence of a nucleus
Electronic charge
Magnitude of the charge of the electron (1.602*10^-19)
Atomic mass units (amu)
Used to measure mass of an atom
Angstroms
Used to measure dimensions of an atom
Atomic number
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; all atoms of a given element have the same atomic number
Mass number
Sum of the number of protons and neutrons
Isotopes
Atoms of same element that different in mass number/number of neutrons
Atomic weight
Average atomic mass; can be calculated by multiplying the atomic masses of various isotopes by their percent abundance and then adding them together
Mass spectrometer
Provides most direct and accurate means of experimentally measuring atomic (and molecular) weights
Metallic elements (metals) location on PT
Left and middle of Periodic Table
Nonmetallic elements (nonmetals) location on PT
Upper right side
Metalloids location on PT
Line separating metals and non-metals
Diatomic molecule
A molecule that contains two atoms
Chemical formula
Composition of a substance
Empirical formula
Relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a molecular substance (ex: C2H4 -> CH2)
Molecular formula
Actual numbers of each type of atom in a molecule
Ions
Charged particles that have gained or lost electrons
Cations
Positively charged ions (have lost electrons), metals
Anions
Negatively charged ions (have gained electrons), nonmetals
Ionic compounds
Electrically neutral combinations of cations and anions; so, usually contain both metallic and nonmetallic elements
Polyatomic ions
Atoms that are joined together but carry a net charge
Chemical nomenclature rules for cations
If can have more than one charge, the charge is written in roman numerals in parentheses -> Iron (II)
If formed from nonmetal atoms, their names end in -ium
Chemical nomenclature rules for anions
Monatomic anions are formed by replacing the ending of the name of the element with -ide -> H- is hydrIDE
Chemical nomenclature rules for polyatomic anions containing oxygen: An Example
ClO4- PERchlorATE (one more O atom than chlorate)
ClO3- ChlorATE ion (most common)
ClO2- ChlorITE ion (one O fewer than chlorate)
ClO- HYPOchlorITE ion (one O fewer than chlorite)
Oxyanions
Polyatomic anions containing oxygen
Chemical nomenclature rules for oxyanions containing H+
Add a prefix to "hydrogen" or "dihydrogen"
Chemical nomenclature rules for ionic compounds
Put name of cation before name of anion (Al(NO3)2 -> aluminum nitrate)
Chemical nomenclature rules for acids
If ends with IDE, the acid ends with IC and begins with HYDRO
If ends in ATE, ends with IC
If ends in ITE, ends with OUS
Chemical nomenclature rules for binary molecular compounds
Greek prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms of each element
Prefixes for binary molecular compounds
Mono - 1
Di - 2
Tri - 3
Tetra - 4
Penta - 5
Hexa - 6
Hepta - 7
Octa - 8
Nona - 9
Deca - 10
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms
2. All atoms of a given element are identical to one another in mass and other properties, and are different from atoms of all other elements
3. Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions
4. Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine
Organic Chemistry definition
Study of compounds that contain carbon
Hydrocarbons
Contain only carbon and hydrogen
Alkanes
Hydrocarbons in which each carbon atom is attached to four other atoms
Alcohol
A compound in which an H atom of a hydrocarbon is replaced by an OH (ends in -ol)
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Acetate
C₂H₃O₂¹⁻
Ammonium
NH₄¹⁺
Arsenate
AsO₄³⁻
Bicarbonate
HCO₃¹⁻
Bisulfite
HSO₃¹⁻
Carbonate
CO₃²⁻
Chlorate
ClO₃¹⁻
Chromate
CrO₄²⁻
Cyanide
CN¹⁻
Dichromate
Cr₂O₇²⁻
Dihydrogen phosphate
H₂PO₄¹⁻
Hydride
H¹⁻
Hydrogen carbonate
HCO₃¹⁻
Hydrogen phosphate
HPO₄²⁻
Hydroxide
OH¹⁻
Mercury(I)
Hg₂²⁺
Mercury(II)
Hg²⁺
Nitrate
NO₃¹⁻
Nitrite
NO₂¹⁻
Perchlorate
ClO₄¹⁻
Permanganate
MnO₄¹⁻
Peroxide
O₂²⁻
Phosphate
PO₄³⁻
Silver
Ag¹⁺
Sulfate
SO₄²⁻
Sulfite
SO₃²⁻
Thiocyanate
SCN¹⁻
Zinc
Zn²⁺
Hypochlorite
ClO⁻
Chlorite
ClO₂⁻
Bisulfate
HSO₄⁻
Acetate
C₂H₃O₂¹⁻
Ammonium
NH₄¹⁺
Arsenate
AsO₄³⁻
Bicarbonate
HCO₃¹⁻
Bisulfite
HSO₃¹⁻
Carbonate
CO₃²⁻
Chlorate
ClO₃¹⁻
Chromate
CrO₄²⁻
Cyanide
CN¹⁻
Dichromate
Cr₂O₇²⁻
Dihydrogen phosphate
H₂PO₄¹⁻
Hydride
H¹⁻
Hydrogen carbonate
HCO₃¹⁻ (two words)
Hydrogen phosphate
HPO₄²⁻
Hydroxide
OH¹⁻
Mercury(I)
Hg₂²⁺
Mercury(II)
Hg²⁺
Nitrate
NO₃¹⁻
Nitrite
NO₂¹⁻
Perchlorate
ClO₄¹⁻
Permanganate
MnO₄¹⁻
Peroxide
O₂²⁻
Phosphate
PO₄³⁻
Silver
Ag¹⁺
Sulfate
SO₄²⁻
Sulfite
SO₃²⁻
Thiocyanate
SCN¹⁻
Zinc
Zn²⁺