AP World Review Items for Mr. M period 6- 1900 to Present
117 b) The Great Leap Forward
Terms in this set (115)
Numbers missing in this period
(If you put back your number, please take your number off of this list)
101, 120, 123, 131
Before he retired what was Mr.M's dad's profession?
He was a ninja
91a. The Theory of Relativity
Showed there is no single spatial or time framework in the universe. It was developed by Einstein. It changed the truth for all people and added a new concept of science to the human population.
91b. Quantum Mechanics
This was developed by Heisenberg, which established the "uncertainty principle." That meant it is impossible to specify simultaneously the velocity of a subatomic particle.This demanded that the exact calculations of physics be replaced with Probability.
91c. The Big Bang Theory
This theory tries to explain the beginning of the universe in which a huge explosion made the earth.This changed the truth people were taught to believe in and gave a somewhat idea of how the universe came to be.
The study of human behavior and mental thought. Sigmund Freud was the father of it and identified conflict between conscious and unconscious.The theory suggested the keys to understanding human behavior and established presence in literature and the arts.
92.a The Polio Vaccine
A vaccine that prevented Polio outbreaks in the mid to late 1900s. Also helped close the distance between superpowers: the USA and USSR because of "Soviet Vaccine" which was developed in the USSR.
Special cells that help in prevention of a desiase. became very prominnet with the invention of the Polio Vaccine during the Cold War
92.c the artificial heart
heart transplants were able to be performed. After the first transplant, it sparked public debate on all aspects of research and its capabilities
For those in developing countries exposed to mosquitos are most prominent for malaria because they do not have the resources to protect against it nor are they financially able to provide vaccines. Popular in Africa, this disease is passed down in birth as sickle cell anemia and caused thousands of deaths each year.
TB is spread via airborne means. Furthermore, interaction with a previously infected person can also spread this disease. Those with HIV can be especially susceptible, causing many in Africa and poorer countries that cannot get aid to kill millions and spread it to their neighbors.
Common in this century's developing countries, cholera is most easily spread via contaminated water or food, reflecting the inability of the underdeveloped countries to provide advanced water treatment to its inhabitants, thereby furthering infection and killing 100k+per year.
94a. The 1918 influenza epidemic
This epidemic swept the entire globe in 1918 and 1919, killing between twenty and forty million people. In the wake of this disease medical experts became much more assertive in the fight against diseases, and the United Nations even called for the elimination of all diseases by 2000.
Ebola fever emerged in Sudan and Zaire. The outbreak in Zaire has one of the highest death rate of any human disease, about 90%.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) destroys the immune system, leaving the individual vulnerable to diseases that lead to death. AIDS is the last stage of HIV. By the end of 2005, 38.6 million people were living with these diseases, and 20 million had died because of it.
body doesnt produce insulin to digest sugar and can cause physical disabilites and even death its signifcant because it helped create a more improved and varied diet
95b. heart diesease
a disease of the heart signiicant because it varied and improved peoples diets, took the lives of many and still do and help increase knowledge in the medical field and eventually lead to the influence of heart transplants
a brain disorder where the memories of the mind slowly decay significant because it helped increase knowledge of the brain and treatments and help influence a better diet
Def- A military weapon used commonly in WW1 and WW2
Sig- Caused high death rates to end resistance
Def- A flying vehicle used for transportation and communication
Sig- Was used for the firebombing on Japan
96c. Atomic Bombs
Def- A nuclear explosive, AKA "a terrible new weapon"
Sig- Was used by US on Japan after Pearl Harbor was attacked
An incendiary bomb that uses a jelly made from a mixture of gasoline and special soaps. These weapons had extremely high destructive capability, especially in Japan where a large number of buildings are made of wood. These weapons could kill soldiers while in bunkers and left countless people homeless. These together severely dropped public support of continued war. This new tactic fit an age of total warfare as it burned down 100,000's of houses.
97.b Trench Warfare
A type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches that face each other. Usually had barbed wire fences and such between opposing trenches. This kind of warfare ensured that World Wars I & II would not be quick easy wins for any side. Soldiers would dig down in bunkers and shoot from its relative safety at any who tried to make an advance. This new tactic drew out the wars that utilized it, prolonging wartime economy and politics.
This mass murder and rape upon innocent civilians by Japanese forces. Showed the brutality of the Japanese army and led to the start of world war 2 as China was the 1st to experience its effects.
Shows the strategic bombing of the US and Britain to fade German resistance which resulted in the British Royal Air force bombing city centers; including this one in Germany. As many as 135000 died in this incident and eventually influenced other fighting where later Germany had to unconditionally surrender as Hitler committed suicide by the end of the world war.
Mass casualties and serious suffering that killed upwards 200,000 people. This encouraged Emperor Hirohito to unconditionally surrender and the war was over on the same year.-shows the effects of thermonuclear weapons.
99 a.Economic Hardship
Def: Problems with national financial issues caused by internal and external factors
Sig: Internal and external factors after the Great War caused major financial problems mainly debt, that lead to a global depression. This depression is what caused the Allies not to stop threats of the Japanese and Germans.
99 b. Political and Social Discontent
Def: National unhappiness concerning politics and social issues
Sig: After the Great Depression Italy was unhappy and wanted to restore their nation to its former glory. Germany most of all, was unhappy with their status after the Great War. They were blamed for the war and wanted to be the top world power. These problems were caused by internal and external problems.
99 c. Technological Stagnation
Def: The halt of technological advancements; the failure to develop new technological advancements.
Sig: Since most major world powers were occupied with war and were just recovering from global depression, they didn't have the means to make big technological advances. Although the US and the USSR developed nuclear arsenals Mutually Assured Destruction prevented further advances.
99 d. Military Defeat
Def: loosing in military conflicts (for this section, mainly dealing with WWII)
Sig: There were many military conflicts during WW II, some internal conflicts within nations and external conflicts with European nations.
100 a. India from the British Empire
India made several movements for independence, but the "Quit India Movement" in 1942, by Gandhi, led the British to negotiating this and giving them independence on August 15,1947. India's independence/ideas led to Hindu-Muslim riots over Muslims wanting an evenly divided status. Independence also led to migrations for expansion that led to suffering, Punjab and Bengal riots, and wars between India and Pakistan.
100 b. The Gold Coast from the British Empire
Kwame Nkrumah, prime minister, created strikes/boycotts for independence. Around 1949 he began his 'Positive Action' campaign that gained working class support and led to independence on March 6, 1957. Ghana becomes a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and a republic with Nkrumah as leader. British gov. agreed to independence as long as they unified with the British Togoland.
102. a Mohandas Gandhi
Gandhi worked to free India from British colonialism, starting in 1915 used non-violence & civil disobedience. Wanted to unify all Indians and end Caste system; didn't get too far. Killed by Muslim, but did get India independence 1st.
102. b Ho Chi Minh
After WW2 he helped get rid of the Japanese and establish the Vietnam Declaration of Independence, defeated and pushed back out the French after they took Vietnam over in 1945. 1960 formed National Liberation front to fight for freedom from the South Vietnamese. 1965 U.S. bombs North Vietnam, yet they are able to hold out and the North reaches and long stalemate with the south. Significant because he fought and pushed for his country and governing choice, Communism, to have a fighting chance in the age of Decolonization.
102. c Kwame Nkrumah
Stood up for Africans unity and came up with a strategy to dealing with decolonization. Wrote a book in which he talked about, preached about, that Africans need to unite together because that's the only way they will all become independent. Also along with this unity Africa would command respect from other nations and wouldn't look so weak. Significant because he was a working nationalist to unite his country and develop independence and a great name for the good of Africa and it's people.
104a) Transnational Movements
Communism spread in the USSR and led to the nationalism of many companies and discouraged capitalism. The USSR helped spread communism to many different countries in an effort to compete with the capitalist nation of the US.
104b) Transnational Movements
Pan-Arabism resulted in the fighting in Palestine to rid the Jews and end Jewish migration to Palestine.
104c) Transnational Movements
Pan-Africanism resulted in the formation of a new African Elite that fought for independence against European forces and worker's strikes against colonial overlords.
105a) India/Pakistan Partition
Ali Jinnah pushed for India to split into Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India. This caused cultural conflict during resettlements and defied nationalist movements.
105b) The Zionist Jewish Settlement of Palestine
The British promise to the Jews to provide them land in Palestine led to huge fighting. Even to this day, there is Jewish and Palestinian friction.
105c) The division of the Middle East into mandates
Was viciously attacked as an anti-nationalist movement for Arab and Muslim Communities.
106 a. South Asians to Britain
The migrations of south Asians to Britain. South Asia and Britain have had close relations since Britain controlled the area until the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947. After World War II, many Asians migrated to Britain in search of employment. The Commonwealth Immigration Act of 1962 limited the number of immigrants, but also allowed more women and children to enter Britain creating South Asian families and communities. Many Asians from Africa migrated to Britain due to African states gaining independence.
106 b. Algerians to France
The migration of Algerians to France. Algeria was a colonial possession of France and by the beginning of the Algerian war in 1954 there were already 200,000 immigrants in France. The Algerians won their independence in 1962, and from 1962-1975 the Algerian population in France increased from 300,000-750,000.
106 c. Filipinos to the United States
The migration of Filipinos to the United States. The United States and Philippines have been associated with each other after the Spanish-American War when the United States gained control of the Philippines. During World War II Filipinos were allowed to be part of the U.S. army and those who served became U.S. citizens. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 allowed the Filipinos to migrate in larger numbers.
107 a. Armenia
During and after World War I, the Armenia Genocide, or the "Great
Crime" took place. The Ottoman Empire attempted to exterminate it's Armenian subjects by forcing the men to do harsh labor or they were simply massacred. The Armenian women, children, and elderly were sent on a death march into the Syrian Desert. After the Holocaust, the Great Crime is the most studied case of genocide.
107 b. The Holocaust
The Holocaust is arguable the greatest atrocity known to mankind. The Nazis "final solution" to exterminating the Jews was sending them to concentration camps. Their Jews were either sent in drones to terrible deaths or literally worked themselves to death.
107 c. Cambodia
From 1975-1978, the communist group known as the Khmer Rouge
(led by Pol Pot) took control of Cambodia. Once in power, the group forced Cambodians into communes. There they put in re-education programs where they were taught communist thought & lifestyle.
107 d. Rwanda
Two main social classes existed in Rwanda: the Tutsi and the Hutu. The Tutsi were the upper class of Rwanda and made up about 10% of the population, while everyone else was Hutu. Beginning in 1994, the Interahamwe ("those who strike"), a Hutu extremist group, began slaughtering Tutsi men, women, and children, often times torturing them first. This grave period is often known as the 100 Days of Slaughter.
108a) Displacement of Palestinians
The migrations of Jews to Palestine was supported by the British and their establishment of the Balfour Declaration in 1917. In Palestine, Jewish peoples established Israel and forced 100,000s of Arab Palestinians to flee. Only 23% of Palestine was left to the Arabs while the rest was Israel.
108b) Displacement of Darfurians
The government in southern Sudan have attacked the Darfurians in the north in efforts to impose Sharia and make Arabic the official language of Sudan. 3 million Darfurians have been displaced from their homes, and 300,000 have died in the fighting.
109. a The Gurkha soldiers in India
Were part of military corps that served in both India and the British armies. Soldiers aided other countries through recruitment process in the 1800's. Physical aspect of Gurkha soldiers were built for war, became mobilized military.
109. b The ANZAC troops in Australia
The "Australia and New Zeeland Army Corps" were military forces that fought alongside the Allies in the World War I in the battle of Gallipoli. Were split apart in battle after Allies fled, and a year later reestablished in Egypt.
109. c Military Conscription
Military conscription was the forced registration of people into the military service. This practice came to be used during the World Wars and by the U.S. "Selective Service System" and the Nazi's "Vollestrum", expanding the military sizes and personnel in battles.
110 A. Pablo Picasso in his Guernica
The Guernica is a mural painted by Pablo Picasso in response to the German/Italian bombing of Guernica, a Basque country village in Spain; the mural expresses the tragedties of war and soon became an anti war symbol and embodiment of peace.
110 B. Thich Quang Duc by Self Immolation
Thich Quang Duc was a Vietnamese Buddhist monk who fought against the persecution of Buddhist in South Vietnam; his act of lighting himself a blaze increased internal pressure of leader Ngo Dinh Diem and led to nation wide raids resulting in Diem's assassination.
110 C. Antinuclear Movements During the Cold War
Social movements that denounced nuclear technology escalated during the cold war and many protest called for and end to the Soviet-US arms race; in 1982 one million people pretested in New York City's central park.
Define: Mohandas K. Gandhi was a Hindu Indian who had great influence in the break of British colonialism in India
Significance: In his attempts to free India, he organized the Indian National Congress into an effective instrument of Indian nationalism. He also helped to spread the idea nonviolence or satyagraha (technique of passive resistance).
111b. Martin Luther King Jr.
Define: He was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement. Martin Luther King Jr. led several nonviolent movements and demonstrations that helped to fight for Black rights.
Significance: Due to his many demonstrations, Martin Luther King Jr. helped future blacks gain the rights they deserved. He also served as clear example of changes can be made without the use of violence.
112a. Communist leaders such as Vladimir Lenin and Mao Zedong
Define: Vladimir Lenin and Mao Zedong were early communist leaders, who developed Marxist teachings to their own needs.
Significance: Lenin held that the proletariats needed an educated leader in his own form of Marxism and helped put the Bolsheviks into power in Russia. Mao Zedong started Chinese Marxist-Leninism called Maoism and founded the People's Republic of China.
112b. The Non-Aligned Movement, which presented an alternative political block to the Cold War
Define: Nehru, leader of India, didn't join either side of the Clod War.
Significance: He allied himself with other non-aligned countries and created an alternative to getting involved in the cold war.
112c. The Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa
Define: Apartheid was the separation and assertion of white supremacy in South Africa. The African National Congress took direct action against African repression. An international antiapartheid boycott was formed.
Significance: The apartheid system was slowly dismantled, the ANC was legalized, and elections were opened to anyone. Segregation in Africa ended.
112d. Participants in the global uprisings of 1968
Define: The uprisings included the Paris riots against consumer capitalism, riots in the US, Warsaw riots, Rome riots, and the "Prague Spring". It also resulted in a workers revolt in France.
Significance: These revolts showed the changing of cultural values and were the start of increased personal freedom.
112e. The Tiananmen Square Protestors that supported the democracy in China
Define: In 1989 Chinese students staged pro-democratic demonstrations in Beijing's Tiananmen Square.
Significance: Deng crushed the demonstrations brutally killing hundreds of protesters. This created a hostile world opinion of China.
113.a The promotion of military dictatorship in Chile, Spain, and Uganda
This item refers to a forcible seizure of power in Chile, Spain, and Uganda by dictators that was significant because the new military-aligned governments were harsh and brought about violent and sudden reforms such as the expulsion of 80,000 Asians from Uganda. Their actions also inspired resistance to their rule, and strained foreign relationships with world powers.
113.b The United States' promotion of a New World Order after the Cold War
The U.S. promotion of a new world order is significant because it signifies the transformation from a bipolar world to a unipolar world, or a world with one major superpower - the United States. The United States' effort to become the sole superpower did not help reduce Cold War animosities.
113.c The buildup of the "military-industrial complex" and arms trading
The military-industrial complex and arms trading refers to the cooperation between the government, the military, and the weapons industry; which greatly fueled the arms race between conflicting nations, notably the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. during the cold war.
114 A. IRA (Irish Republican Army)
This organization was formed from a group of Irish volunteers in 1913.They wanted their independence from Britain, and they fought the Irish War of Independence with the aid of Germany.
114 B. ETA (Euskodi Ta Askatasuna)
1958-2011This was an armed Basque army whose main opponents were Spain & France. it's viewed more of a terrorist organization, its responsible for over 800 deaths and thousands of injuries. They are in example of a violent "liberal" movement wanting independence from Spain.
114 C. Al-Qaeda
An organization formed by Osama Bin Ladin that ran from 1880-2000's. it is a global military Islamic organization ran by sunnis looking to serve Jihad. this organization is responsible for the 9/11 attack on the twin towers. the U.S. then created a stronger security system.
115 a. Dada
An artistic movement in modern art. Started around WWI and its purpose was to ridicule the supposed meaningless of the modern world. In influenced surrealism, pop art, punk rock which went against normal actions.
115 b. James Bond
Is a fictional British spy created by Ian Fleming in 1953. James Bond put a face on the cold war which was between the allies and Russia which led to James Bond becoming popular because he stimulated peoples imagination by introducing explosive gadgets.
115 c.Socialist Realism
Is a style of art, fiction, movies, and plays it describes the daily life of workers and poor people. Socialist realism is a consequence of global conflicts that an average person is unaware of which media spreads.
115 d. Video Games
Electronic games played in a virtual world. War games were introduced to cope with death and dehumanized death and give them immortality and give them the opportunity to experience violence without physically being there.
116 a) Five Year Plans
Economic plans that were designed to transform economies from being mainly agrarian based to industrialized. First issued by Stalin in 1929 and then by the Chinese Govt. in 1955. These plans set unrealistic goals and proved to be an utter failure. However it did demonstrate the lengths the (Communist) Governments were willing to go in order to control their respecting economies.
116 b) The Great Leap Forward
Mao's Zedong's attempt to transform China from a largely agrarian based society and into an industrialized one AND collectivization of labor. It was quite similar to the Five Year Plan the Chinese attempted earlier, however this plan ended in large scale catastrophe because grain shortages ended up starving millions of peasants and at the same time inspired mass killings. This plan emphasized the Chinese (Communist Governments) will to transform their economy under there ideal view at the cost of many lives lost.
117.a The New Deal
U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt created the new deal which was a system of proposals that dealt with the national depression by creating jobs, requiring minimum wage and providing social security.
117.b The Fascist Corporatist Economy
An economy where there is a single dictator that is in ultimate power and the economy is run through groups of people owning businesses instead of a single individual.
118a .Nasser's Promotion of economic development in Egypt
Beginning a political revolution in a campaign of state reform through Militarism, Gamal Abdel Nasser ended the monarchy of Egypt's King Farouk and proclaimed himself prime minister in efforts to develop Egypt economically and make it the foundation of pan-Arab nationalism. Nasser's efforts to strengthen Egypt included the adoption of an internationalist position akin to Nehru's nonalignment policy in India, whose neutralism was based on the belief that cold war politics were new imperialistic forms. Nasser's condemned states joined military alliances with foreign powers such as the Baghdad Pact and he believed the bipolar world's opportunities could be exploited in the advancement of Egypt
118b. The encouragement of export- oriented economies in East Asia
Japanese promoted economy that emphasized export-oriented growth supported by low wages. The low cost of Japanese labor ensured cheap production of goods able to compete on the basis of price. In the following decades, Japanese cooperation's became technologically involved and the label, "Made in Japan," no longer signified cheap manufactured goods, but signified the products of high quality state-of-the-art innovations. Inspired by Japan's success story, China's leaders launched economic reforms which reversed earlier policies and opened Chinese markets to the outer world, imported foreign technology, and encouraged foreign investment. The planned economic system , acting as a major exporter, benefitted China from its cheap labor and enormous markets which made the Chinese economy a destination for foreign investment. In 2001, China became the newest member of the World Trade Organization.
119 a. Ronald Reagan
During his U.S. presidency (1981-1989) Ronald renewed attacks on communism, advocated massive military spending, and established the "Strategic Defense Initiative" which provided nuclear bomb protection from the Soviet Union.
119 b. Margaret Thatcher
The first female prime minister of Britain (1979-1990) who led the Conservatives back to power. She advocated private industries, trade union reforms, and lowered taxes. This led to reduced inflation, and increased unemployment.
119 c. Deng Xiaoping
A Chinese communist leader of the People's Republic of China (1970-1997). He made political, economic and social reforms, and tried incorporating elements of free enterprise. This helped domestic stability and economic growth, but also led to social inequalities and increased unemployment.
119 d. Pinochet
He was in the Chilean military and rose through the ranks swiftly, and was involved in a coup which overthrew President Allende of Chile (1973). He then made himself dictator, and advocated lower taxes, nationalized businesses and foreign investment. This led to social inequalities and increased unemployment. He was charged later in 1998 for alleged human rights abuses
121a. The International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Define- IMF is an organization of 188 countries working to make a better international economy.
Significance- IMF is working faster to help secure financial stability and promote higher employment rates.
121b. The World Bank
Define- The World Bank is the world's largest source for the development of finance and the development of expertise and coordination services.
Significance- The World Bank was designed to create economic cooperation and develop a strong global economy.
121c. The World Trade Organization (WTO)
Define- The WTO was established by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; WTO developed into an organization for settling international trade disputes and power to enforce its decisions.
Significance- The WTO is using trade to stimulate world economic growth
122 a. UNICEF
The United Nations Children's Fund is an organization founded 1946 that tries to help children around the world to grow healthy and have a chance in the world despite having grown up in difficult conditions. Because they try to help people, the UNICEF are a humanitarian organization.
122 b. The Red Cross
Founded in 1881, The American Red Cross is a humanitarian organization that helps in areas such as helping the needy, providing emergency assistance, and disaster relief and education among many other things.
122 c. Amnesty International
A humanitarian organization that fights to protect human rights around the world. through media attention, research, and other methods, the group founded in 1961 demands justice for those that have been violated.
122 d. Doctors Without Borders
Also known as Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), the French humanitarian organization founded 1971 provides medical aid in countries around the world who are facing diseases. This group with over 20,000 medical professionals has worked wonders.
122 e. World Health Organization (WHO)
WHO is an agency that is part of the United nations and was founded in 1948. Having played a role in ending small pox as part of its focus on international public health, it now focuses on communicable diseases like HIV and tuberculosis. WHO is a humanitarian organization.
124. a Royal Dutch Shell
commonly known as Shell, the Netherlands, London, and the United Kingdom came together to sell gas making the company the second largest selling oil company. Shell demonstrates the impact that oil had on the world since the company reaches lands worldwide, illustrating a form of globalization that eventually led to changes in political and social structures through the corporations of the Netherlands, London, and the United Kingdom
124. b Coca-Cola
What started off as a small business in the state of Alabama grew and became one of the best selling soda and beverage drinks that eventually was sold to worldwide destinations. Coca-Cola demonstrates that the world can come to a whole and agree on a product that doesn't portrait any harm to ones nation.
124. c Sony
This Japanese corporation of electronics, music, motion pictures, and financial services increased the desire for consumers to purchase products not necessarily important. The Sony Corporation sells its products throughout the world making it a multinational corporation. The company is significant because it increased the lure of products therefore causing economic growth and a threat to conservative indigenous cultures.
125. a Greenpeace
Greenpeace is an organization that finds its origins in Canada. It was formed in the 60's mainly to protest the nuclear weapon testing that was going on in Alaska by the US, but later came to support the causes of anti commercial whaling groups or protesting the dumping of toxic waste. This signifies efforts made by companies to protest the use of nuclear weaponry in the midst of a cold war.
125. b Green belt in Kenya
The Green belt movement in Kenya is an environmental conservation/ community strengthening/ female empowerment program developed by female activist Professor Wangari Maathai The Green belt signifies the steps made by individuals to recognize problems in the environment, and to address those problems in a modern world where that was always the last concern.
125. c Earth day
Earth day celebrates the beauty of the planet and helps to raise awareness about major problems that need to be fixed to keep the Earth clean and happy. Is another way that people have tried to keep the downsides of the modern world at bay.
126a.the U.N. Universal
this was the group that made so much toward the equality rights and they made it possible that women and other people get all or almost all the rights that others have.
126b. Declaration of human rights
this big declaration of rights is made for all people around the world and it is important because it took all the huge and important peace treaties and condensed them into one for the whole world
126c. Women's Rights
it gave women the rights they have and use today and it changed the way many places and societies ran and allowed women to be such an active role in the world
126d. the end of the white Australia policy
this made non-white people "welcome" in Australia and it gave them the rights they needed and was a step forward into world wide equality.
Negritude was a term first developed by the the French in 1930s, and was used as a political literacy movement that promoted pride in having an African heritage.
128 a. Xenophobia
Symbolized the fear of foireign influences from other cultures which was one of the reasons for the holocaust's occurence
128 b. Race Riots
Showed that in societies that no legal barriers between classes still had social barriers that led to things like revolutions.
128 c. Citisenship Restrictions
Citizenship restrictions are a symbol of natinaolistic racism twoards a type of people or race which caused many racial conflicts in the post depression world
129a. New Age Religions
Religions that came up during the 1900s that were combinations of previous religions. They mixed up native beliefs and made new ones.
129b. Hare Krishna
The worship of the deity Radha-Krishna worldwide. An altered form of the original native Hinduism.
129c. Falun Gong
Founded by Li Hangzhi was an act of meditation and discipline.
130 A. Fundamentalist Movements
During the 1910's Protestants were highly influenced by the book series known as "The Fundamentals", these booked inspired many theologists conservatives to rally in regards to the Bible being the point of controversy.
130 B. Liberation Theology
Catholic theologists in the Latin Americas During the 1950's and 1960's interpreted Jesus in relation to the unjust economic, social, and political unjust, but after accusations of representing "Marxist" concepts the Vatican disposed Liberation Theology as a systematic sin.
132 a. Reggae
Def: Reggae is a popular Jamaican music blending blues, calypso, and rock-n-roll. It is classified by syncopated rhythm and lyrics of social protest.
Sig: Reggae music started as a way to protest colonial rule in the Caribbean and Africa. This music was used to rally blacks to the cause to oppose colonial rule. This soon leads to black nationalism. Reggae music was played on radios globally to rally blacks, but soon became popular to many others. This popularity started in the UK.
132 b. Bollywood
Def: Indian movie industry in Bombay
Traditional Indian dance form.
Sig: Bollywood movies were usually exaggerated musical movies that had multiple scenes were characters broke into song with traditional dancing, extravagant lighting and props. These unrealistic, romanticized movies were popular and attractive compared to regular day-to-day life that was distressing and overwhelming. The specific dance, song and over all style became distinct and famous. The movies' style became known globally and became popular. They also spread through dance showcases.
103 a. Muhammad Ali Jinnah
This man was the president of the Muslim League and fought against the British for a new and independent state. He wanted to separate India into Pakistan(Muslim) and India(Hindu).
103 b. The Quebecois Separatist Movement
This movement caused the Quebec federal government to send troops to suspend civil liberties. It also led to the adoption of the French language of business, court judgements, laws, government regulations, etc.
103 c. The Biafara Secessionist Movement
This movement was to secure the resurgence of Biafara. It was also involved with many protests and death of the Nigerian government.
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