Upgrade to remove ads
Psychology Unit 2
Terms in this set (26)
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all- along phenomenon.)
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, assesses the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that or- ganizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intel- ligence test measures.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
observing and recording behavior in nat- urally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a represen- tative, random sample of the group.
a flawed sampling process that produces an unrep- resentative sample.
all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.)
a sample that fairly represents a population be- cause each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
A measure of the extent to which two variables change together, and thus of how well either variable predicts the other
a statistical index of the relationship be- tween two variables
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direc- tion of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
a research method in which an investigator manipu- lates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the ef- fect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to con- trol other relevant variables.
in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
in an experiment, the group not exposed to the treat- ment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a com- parison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behav- ior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
a factor other than the independent vari- able that might produce an effect in an experiment.
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 3: Nature and Nurture Intertwined
Chapter 4: The Physical Basis of Behavior
Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception
Chapter 1: The Discipline of Psychology
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Unit 2: research methods
psych unit 3
Psychology (4th Edition) Chapter 1
Exploring Psychology Module 2 Vocabulary
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Economics Unit 5 Vocab
Spanish Countries and Capitals
Past and Present Perfect Irregulars