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Chapter 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (42)
What are the three basic types of cross-cultural research? How are they different from each other?
1. Method Validation Studies:
see cross cultural validation study
. These studies do not test a specific hypothesis about cultural differences; rather, they test the equivalence of psychological measures and tests for use in other cross-cultural comparative research, and they are important to conduct before cross-cultural comparisons.
2. Indigenous Cultural Studies: characterized by rich descriptions of complex theoretical models of a single culture that predict and explain cultural differences. The insights generated from these studies are compared to insights from similar studies in other cultures, allowing for cross-cultural comparisons after the fact.
3. Cross-Cultural Comparisons: involve participants from two or more cultures and that measure those participants' responses on a psychological variable of interest.
see definition below
What are the four basic dimensions that underlie different types of cross-cultural comparisons? Be able
to provide an example for each dimension.
1. Exploratory versus Hypothesis Testing: exploratory studies are designed to
examine the existence of cross-cultural similarities and differences
. Researchers tend to stay "close to the data" in exploratory studies. Hypothesis-testing studies are designed to
examine why cultural differences may exist
. Thus these studies make larger inferential jumps by testing theories of cross-cultural similarities and differences.
2.Presence or Absence of Contextual Factors: context factors are any variables that can explain, partly or fully, cross-cultural differences when they are observed in a study.
3. Structure versus Level Oriented: structure -oriented studies compare constructs, their measurements, or their relationships with other constructs across cultures. Level-oriented studies compare mean levels of scores between cultures.
4. Individual versus Ecological (cultural) Level: individual-level studies are those where data from individuals are the unit of analysis. Ecological-level studies analyze data with country or culture as the unit of analysis.
What is a linkage study? Be familiar with the two different types of linkage studies (unpackaging studies
& experiments) described in the textbook.
Studies that attempt to measure an aspect of culture theoretically hypothesized to produce cultural differences and then empirically link that measured aspect of culture with the dependent variable of interest.
1. Unpackaging Studies: cross-cultural comparisons that include the measurement of a variable (contextual factor) that assess a cultural factor considered to produce the differences on the target variable being compared across cultures. Cultures are like onions, for which layer by layer needs to be peeled off until nothing is left.
2. Experiments: researchers create conditions to establish cause-effect relationships. Experiments differ because researchers create the conditions and assign participants to those conditions.
What are some of the ways that bias can interfere with cross-cultural research? What are some ways that
researchers can eliminate (or reduce) these types of bias?
see bias definitions below
What is one of the largest drawbacks in cross-cultural studies where cultural groups are the independent
They are Quasi-experiments can't control experiment since you cannot give or remove a person's culture.
The degree to which a finding, measurement, or statistic is accurate, or represents what it is supposed to.
The degree to which a finding, measurement, or statistic is consistent.
Cross-cultural validation study
A study that examines whether a measure of a psychological construct that was originally generated in a single culture is applicable, meaningful, and thus equivalent in another culture.
Indigenous cultural studies
Studies that use rich, complex, and in-depth descriptions of cultures and cultural differences to predict and test for differences in a psychological variable.
A study that compares two or more cultures on some psychological variable of interest, often with the hypothesis that one culture will have significantly higher scores on the variable than the other(s).
Studies designed to examine the existence of cross-cultural similarities or differences. These are generally simple, quasi-experimental designs comparing two or more cultures on a psychological variable.
Studies designed to test why cultural differences exist. They go beyond simple quasi-experimental designs by either including context variables or by using experiments.
Any variable that can explain, partly or fully, observed cross-cultural differences. These may involve characteristics of the participants (such as socioeconomic status, education, and age) or their cultures (such as economic development and religious institutions).
Studies that examine whether constructs are conceptualized the same way across cultures, the relationship of a construct to other constructs, or the measurement of a construct.
Studies that examine cultural differences in mean levels of variables.
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Sets with similar terms
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