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Cathedral Prep Freshman 2012-2013 AP Human Geography Chapter 12 Notes Test

A service is...

...any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.

In geographic terms, only one locational factor is critical of a service:

proximity to the market.

The distribution of service workers is opposite that of primary workers. (If a country has a large percentage of its workers engaged in farming, then... )

...few will be involved in the service sector.

The service sector of the economy is subdivided into three types:

consumer services, business services, and public services.

The purpose of public service is... provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.

The personal service sector has increased rapidly primarily because of a very large increase in the provision of... ...including hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and home health care programs. care services...

Clustered rural settlements are called...

...hamlets or villages.

In Great Britain, the... ...transformed the rural landscape by consolidating individually owned strips of land surrounding a village into a large farm owned by an individual.

...Enclosure Movement...

The Central Place Theory was proposed by German geographer... the 1930's.

...Walter Christaller...

To determine the extent of a market area, geographers need two pieces of information about a service:

its range and its threshold.

Virtually all settlements were rural, because the economy was...

...based on the agricultural production of the surrounding fields.

The residents of one settlement would establish a new settlement to...

...fill a gap in trading routes and to open new markets for goods.

With the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century A. D., ...and Europe's cultural heritage was...

...urban settlements declined...

...preserved largely in monasteries.

From the collapse of Rome until the diffusion of the Industrial Revolution across Europe during the nineteenth century, most of the world's largest cities were in...

...Asia, not Europe.

Geographers distinguish four levels of cities that play a major role in the provisions of producer and other business services in the global economy. These four levels are...

World cities
Regional command and control centers.
Specialized producer service centers.
Dependent centers.

Because they require accessibility to everyone in the region, three types of retail services concentrate in the CBD. These types of retail services are...

Shops with a high threshold.
Shops with a long range.
Shops that serve people working in the CBD.

As a result of its... ...and..., values in CBD are very high.

...accessibility... ...desirability...

Two distinctive characteristics of the central city follow from the high land cost. These two characteristics are...

Land is used more intensively in the center than anywhere else in the city.
Some activities are excluded from the center because of the high cost of space.

Because of the high cost of land in the CBD, this area... ...than any other part of the city.

...uses more space above and below the ground level...

Professional offices are... ...and can occupy the... ...where rents are lower.

...less dependent on walk in trade...

...higher levels...

The five stages of John Borchert's model of evolution of the American urban system are...

The Sale Wagon Epoch
The Iron Horse Epoch
The Steel Rail Epoch
Auto-Air Epoch
The High-Technology Epoch

...refers to the phenomenon of two non-basic jobs being created to every job in the basic sector.

The multiplier effect...

The four components of the urban realms model are...

The central business district
The central city
The new downtown
The suburban downtown

The urban realms model clearly demonstrates that today's outer cities are not...

...satellites of the central city.

According to geographers, the best location for a service is the one that...

...minimized the distance to the service for the largest number of people.

A regular hierarchy indicates that the society is...

...sufficiently wealthy to justify the provision of goods and services to consumers throughout the country.

...are the two main types of business services.

Producer services and transportation services...

The Gravity Model predicts that...

...the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and is inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.

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