ex phys 2 final exam (javi)
Terms in this set (74)
what are the 4 heat related problems in order?
heat syncope, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke
what is heat syncope?
fainting or excessive loss of strength
what are some signs of heat syncope?
headache and nausea
what are heat cramps?
spasmodic muscular contractions caused by exertion in extreme heat
how do you treat heat cramps?
apply pressure, stretch and hydrate
what is heat exhaustion?
collapse with or w/out loss of consciousness, suffered in conditions of heat and high humidity
what are some signs of heat exhaustion?
dizzy, pale, profuse sweating, thirst, loss of consciousness
how do you treat heat exhaustion?
move individual out of heat, water, gently massage the extremities
what is heat stroke?
final stage of heat exhaustion in which the thermoregulatory system shuts down to conserve depleted fluid levels
what are some signs of heat stroke?
no sweat, dry skin, rapid strong pulse, labored breathing
how to treat heat stroke?
remove clothing, cool quickly starting at head and continuing down body
what are some factors affecting heat injury?
acclimatization, fitness, clothing, environmental humidity, metabolic rate, environmental temp, wind, and hydration
how long does it take to acclimatize to heat?
what are some adaptations that occur when acclimatized to heat?
increased plasma volume and capacity to sweat, reduces sodium loss, lower body temp and HR
what is preseason conditioning for?
to improve fitness and promote acclimatization and maintain it until the season starts
what are some factors affecting hypothermia?
environmental factors, insulating factors, heat production and descriptive characteristics (age/gender)
what are two ways that the body attempts to reverse a decrease in body temp?
shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis
which is more dangerous and why: water immersion or wind chill?
water immersion because heat is lost 25x greater in water than in air
what is the primary fuel used during shivering?
what are some ways exercising in high air pollution can be detrimental to your health?
decrease capacity to transport oxygen, increase airway resistance, alter perception of effort
what are the different types of air pollutants?
particulate matter, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide
why is carbon monoxide so dangerous?
it has a higher affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen does; it reduces oxygen transport
what are some effects of particulate matter?
pulmonary infection, elevate BP, causes oxidative stress and DNA damage
what age groups are less tolerant to cold?
60 or older and children
who tends to lose heat faster?
name 2 insulating factors
subcutaneous fat and clothing
what is hypothermia?
when heat loss exceeds heat production
what are some ways to reduce heat injury?
best protector: acclimatization
exercise in cooler parts of day, wear light clothing, monitor HR
what is hyperthermia?
elevated body temp
what is the most rapid way to lower body temp in overheated situations?
how does altitude have an effect on long-term aerobic performance?
results in poorer performance and is dependent on oxygen delivery to muscle
how does VO2 max respond at high altitudes?
it decreases due to lower oxygen extraction
how does the body acclimatize to high altitude?
production of more red blood cells and greater oxygen saturation
how does VO2 max respond to training at high altitudes?
it increases for some and not for others, it varies
what is live high train low?
living high elicits increase in RBCs which increases VO2 max while training low allows for maintenance of HIIT
what are some causes of the lactate paradox?
lower plasma epi and muscle adaptations
what is the lactate paradox?
lactate response reduces among acclimatization at high altitude
what is reversibility?
when training is stopped and the effect is quickly lost
how do men and women respond to training programs?
they respond similarly
training improvement is always greater in which individuals?
individuals with lower fitness levels
how does genetics influence training? (anaerobic v aerobic)
anaerobic is more genetically determined than aerobic
what are the three methods to improving aerobic power?
interval training, long slow distance, and high intensity continuous exercise
what is interval training?
repeated exercise bouts at 85-100% HRmax less than 60 seconds
what is long slow distance?
low intensity exercise at 57% VO2 or 70% HRmax and longer
what is high intensity continuous exercise?
high intensity exercise at 90-100% VO2 max
appears to be the best method for increasing VO2 max
how do most injuries occur?
what is the ten percent rule?
increase workload 10 percent per week
how do you train atp-pc system?
short 5-10 seconds
30 yard dash for football players
how do you train the glycolytic system?
short 20-60 seconds
alternate hard and light days
what are the three categories of strength training exercises?
isometric (static), dynamic of isotonic, and isokinetic
how can weight training programs be accomplished?
volume, weight, reps, frequency, rest intervals
what is linear periodization?
shift from high volume/low intensity to low volume/high intensity
what is periodization of strength training?
systemic variation of volume and intensity over time
what happens in a combined strength training and endurance program?
it may result in lower strength training gains
when should a combined strength training and endurance program be performed?
on alternate days for optimal gains
are there gender differences in response to short term strength training?
no, but there is a difference in long-term
what is DOMS and when does it appear? why?
delayed onset muscle soreness; 24-48 hours after exercise; microscopic tears in muscle fibers
how can you avoid DOMS?
by slowly beginning an exercise over 5-10 days
what are the steps leading to DOMS?
1) muscle contraction causes damage
2) membrane damage occurs
3) Ca leaks out of SR and collects in mitochondria
4) results in inflammation
5) edema and histamines stimulate pain receptors
what is the repeated bout effect?
a bout of unfamiliar exercise results in DOMS
what are the 3 theories for the repeated bout effect?
neural theory, connective tissue theory, cellular theory
what is the neural theory?
recruitment of larger number of muscle fibers
what is connective tissue theory?
increased connective tissue to protect muscle
what is the cellular theory?
synthesis of protective proteins w/in muscle fiber
what is the purpose of off-season conditioning?
prevent excessive fat gain, maintain muscular strength, maintain skill level
what is the purpose of pre-season conditioning?
increase to max the energy systems
what is the purpose of in-season conditioning?
maintenance of fitness level
what are some symptoms of overtraining?
elevated HR and blood lactate at same submax work rate, loss in body weight, chronic fatigue, sore throats
what is tapering?
short-term reduction in training load prior to competition
what is the female athlete triad?
amenorrhea, eating disorders, and bone mineral loss
what are the neural factors of peripheral fatigue?
inability of Na/K pump to maintain action potential amplitude and frequency
what are the mechanical factors of peripheral fatigue?
cross bridge cycling and high H concentration may contribute to fatigue
what are the energetics of contraction of peripheral fatigue?
imbalance of ATP requirements and accumulation of inorganic phosphate
what are some factors affecting performance?
carbs, water, arousal, motivation, altitude, heat, humidity, VO2 max, cardiac output, O2 delivery/extraction