H SOC Ch. 1 The Sociological Perspective

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Terms in this set (...)

sociology
systemic study of human society
society
people who live by a defined territory and share a way of life
sociological perspective
sociology's special point of view that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people
social interaction
the stronger one's tie to society
sociological imagination
if people can understand their society, it improves understanding of life
sociological thinking
what can bring about social change?
social change
what encourages social thinking
global perspective
study of the larger world and our society
global awareness
logical extension of the sociological perspective
high income, middle income, low income
what 3 categories of the 194 countries of the world split into?
1. where we live shapes our lives
2. societies across globe are interconnected
3. what happens when the world affects us
4. social issues are more serious in other countries
5. learn more about ourselves by thinking globally
what are the 5 causes and consequences of global wealth and poverty?
public policy
sociologists shape the laws and regulations that guide how people in communities work and live
special education, school busing, racial desegregation
3 examples of public policy
1. helps us use "common sense"
2. see opportunities and constraints in our lives
3. empower us to be active in society
4. help us live in a diverse world
how does the application of the sociological perspective make us more aware and able to think critically about our daily lives? (name 4 reasons)
social change
rise of factories, growth of cities, and new ideas about democracy
Auguste Comte
coined the term sociology
new
is sociology an old or new academic discipline?
how society operates
what is the main objective of sociology?
positivism
scientific approach to knowledge based on "positive" facts as opposed to speculation
theological, metaphysical, scientific
what are the 3 stages of historical development?
theological stage
beginning of human history to end of the European Ages (1350)
metaphysical stage
history in which people saw society as natural not supernatural
scientific stage
work of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton (1473-1727)
theory
statement of how and why specific facts are related
theoretical approach
a basic image of society that guides thinking and research
structural functional
what is the framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work to promote solidarity and stability
social structure
any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
social function
the consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
Comte
pointed out the need to keep society unified at a time when traditions were being broken
Durkheim
established study of sociology in French universities, agreed with Comte
Spencer
compared society to the human body = social structures work together to preserve society
Merton
said that any social structure has many functions
manifest, latent, social dysfunction
what are the 3 social functions?
manifest function
the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
latent function
unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
social dysfunction
disrupts the operation of society
social-conflict approach
framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
gender conflict
the study of society that focuses on inequality and conflict between men and women
Harriet Martineau
fought for change in education (hid writing under sewing machine)
Jane Addams
founded Hull House in the slums of Chicago
race conflict
the study of society that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories
WEB DuBois
born to a poor family, attended Harvard, 1st doctorate for a person of color, founded Atlanta sociology lab, founded NAACP
symbolic interaction
framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
define our surroundings, what we think of others, shape our identities
we create reality as we:
macro
a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
structural functional, conflict
what two theoretical approaches are examples of a macro level of orientation
micro
close up focus on social interaction in specific situations
symbolic interaction
what theoretical approach is an example of a micro level of orientation?