50 terms

Honors US Naruta Unit 2 SFI Terms

American Pageant Chapters 23-26
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Tweed Ring
Boss Tweed, NY, stole about $200 million from the people, eventually found out and jailed until he died
Gilded Age
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain (sarcastically because of the corruption) to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
patronage
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
sharecropping
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops; usually virtually enslaved the workers because of debt
Jim Crow
barrier preventing blacks from participating in various activities with whites
Plessy v. Ferguson
sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal
Chinese Exclusion Act
Pased in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.
Pendleton Act
Law for the reformation of the American national civil service, introduced into the Senate by George Hunt Pendleton, of Ohio in 1880, but which did not become a law until January the 6th, 1883. It provided for open competitive examinations for admission to the public service.
Homestead Strike
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
James A. Garfield
20th president, Republican, assassinated by Charles Julius Guiteau after a few months in office due to lack of patronage
Chester Arthur
Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
Grover Cleveland
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
J. P. Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Interstate Commerce
commerce between two or more states which can be regulated by the federal government
vertical integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
horizontal consolidation
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
trust (monopoly)
term generally used to describe any large scale business operation inspired by horizontal consolidation
Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
Social Darwinists
Theorists who applied Darwin's theory of natural selection to human society, arguing that poorer and weaker segments of society desrved their fate; survival of the fittest
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
requires the United States federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of violating the Act. It was the first Federal statute to limit cartels and monopolies, and today still forms the basis for most antitrust litigation by the United States federal government. However, for the most part, politicians were unwilling to refer to the law until Theodore Roosevelt's presidency (1901-1909).
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed; demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
Haymarket Square Riot
Chicago Labor protest turned deadly when anarchists throw a bomb; deeply negative effect on Labor Movement as it was now viewed as too radical
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
closed shop
a company that hires only union members
Cornelius Venderbilt
an American entrepreneur who built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family.
Alexander Graham Bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922); invented the telephone in 1876
Thomas Alva Edison
This scientist received more than 1,300 patents for a range of items including the automatic telegraph machine, the phonograph, improvements to the light bulb, a modernized telephone and motion picture equipment.
Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
Samuel Gompers
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
New Immigrants
Refers to the immigrants from southern and eastern Europe who came primarily during the age of Industrialization in the late 1800's and early 1900's.
settlement houses
a welfare agency for needy families, combated juvenile delinquency, and assisted recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. Jane Addams of the Hull House Settlement in Chicago
Tuskegee Institute
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper
land-grant colleges
Are institutions of higher education in the United States that have been designated by each state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890
yellow journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
militant suffragist organization founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
W. E. B. Du Bois
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
Horatio Alger
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote "rags to riches" books praising the values of hard work
Carrie Chapman Catt
Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.
reservation system
introduced in 1870, forced nations to live on barren land, it confined people so they could not support themselves in their accustomed way. It has left to the institutional of this enforced segregation.
Battle of the Little Bighorn
a battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876); Custer was pursuing Sioux led by Sitting Bull; it was a disastrous defeat
Battle of Wounded Knee
The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Homestead Act
Land given out by the government. Throughout the 19th century homesteads were sold for a cheap price, as well as given away by the homestead act of 1862. Many of these homesteads were also purchased by businesses and railroads using families to claim the land.
Populists
followers of the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
Pullman strike
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
William McKinley
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist