Upgrade to remove ads
BIO 148 Exam 4 Mastering Questions
Terms in this set (60)
Which feature did the first eukaryotes probably lack?
Which disease is caused by a protist?
Which of the following statements is consistent with the assertion that protists are paraphyletic?
A. Protists all share a common set of synapomorphies.
B. Protists do not share a single common ancestor.
C. Protists are all more primitive than land plants and animals.
D. Some protists evolved into other eukaryotic groups.
Where on the phylogenetic tree should the origin of a nuclear envelope appear?
A. at the base of the monophyletic group Bikonta
B. at the base of Plantae
C. at the base of all Eukaryotes
D. at the base of the group Animals
Which of the following statements best describes the term synapomorphy?
A. a trait common in a single monophyletic group, but not generally found outside of that group
B. a trait that is shared by more than one monophyletic group
C. a trait that evolved in several different monophyletic groups simultaneously
D. the state of having several traits in common with different monophyletic groups
As a group, fungi are _____.
Fungi release digestive enzymes into their _____.
Basidia produce spores by a process known as _____.
Why is it more difficult to treat fungal infections than bacterial infections in humans?
A. Fungal and animal cells and proteins are similar. Thus, drugs that disrupt fungal cell or protein function may also disrupt human cell or protein function.
B. Most fungi are multicellular and thus the drugs required to treat a fungal infection must be able to kill several types of cells; bacteria, on the other hand, are unicellular and thus simpler to kill.
C. Fungi are able to mutate more quickly than bacteria, so they quickly develop resistance to antifungal drugs.
D. Fungi are larger organisms than bacteria and thus require stronger drugs to stop an infection.
Cuticle, stomata, and vascular tissue were all key adaptations enabling plants to _____.
A. grow more quickly
B. survive better in aquatic environments
C. reproduce more quickly
D. colonize land
Which of the following species would you not classify as an animal?
The basic (most common) animal body plan can be thought of as simply _____.
A. several joined rings
B. a tube within a tube
C. a series of boxes
D. many concentric circles
What advantage do organisms that reproduce sexually have over organisms that reproduce asexually?
A. Their offspring may have more mutations.
B. Their offspring are bigger and better able to reproduce.
C. Their offspring can exist in both haploid and diploid stages.
D. Their offspring may be more adaptable to changes in the environment.
Which term describes the fusion of two gametes to form a diploid zygote
Alternation of generations
Which term describes the multicellular haploid form of a protist that shows alternation of generations?
Which structure mediates the attachment of spores to a surface on which to grow?
Which of the following statements about Ulva's haploid stage is true?
A. Haploid cells produce gametes by meiosis.
B. Haploid cells are produced by meiosis of diploid cells.
C. Gametes of the same mating type fuse to produce a diploid zygote.
D. The haploid Ulva cells are genetically identical to their diploid parents.
How does the haploid form of Ulva "switch" to its diploid form?
A. Sporophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.
B. Gametophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.
C. Sporophytes undergo meiosis to produce spores that germinate into diploid adults.
D. Gametophytes produce cells that undergo meiosis and produce spores that germinate into diploid adults.
True or false? Organisms that exhibit alternation of generations reproduce sexually in the diploid stage.
Refer to the figure and consider the following data: Brown algae (protists) include unicellular and multicellular organisms. Red algae (protists) include unicellular and multicellular organisms. Amoebae (protists) include unicellular and multicellular organisms. Which of the following conclusions is consistent with the data presented?
A. Multicellularity is a synapomorphy that defines a eukaryote.
B. Multicellularity evolved multiple times as eukaryotes diversified.
C. Multicellularity is more adaptive than unicellularity.
D. Multicellularity evolved once; thus, animals are derived from the most recently evolved protists.
Mushrooms and puffballs are examples of structures used for _____.
Mycelia produced in asexual reproduction are _____.
Some fungal species can kill herbivores while feeding off of sugars from its plant host. What type of relationship does this fungus have with its host?
An organism that exhibits cephalization probably also _____.
A. has a coelom
B. is diploblastic
C. is bilaterally symmetrical
D. has a hydrostatic skeleton
E. is segmented
If you think of the tube-within-a-tube body plan as a pipe with a straw inside, where would you expect to find most of the ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal germ layers, respectively?
A. pipe; straw; space inside of straw
B. pipe; space between pipe and straw; straw
C. straw; space between pipe and straw; pipe
D. space inside of straw; straw; space between pipe and straw
A farmer uses triazine herbicide to control pigweed in his field. For the first few years, the triazine works well and almost all the pigweed dies; but after several years, the farmer sees more and more pigweed. Which of these explanations best describes this observation?
A. The herbicide company lost its triazine formula and started selling poor-quality triazine.
B. Triazine-resistant pigweed has less-efficient photosynthesis metabolism.
C. Natural selection caused the pigweed to mutate, creating a new triazine-resistant species.
D. Only triazine-resistant weeds survived and reproduced, so each year more pigweed was triazine-resistant.
In biology, an adaptation is defined as _____.
A. a change in an individual's DNA sequence
B. a change in an individual's behavior in response to changes in environmental conditions
C. a change in an individual's body in response to changes in environmental conditions
D. a heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment
Which statement about vestigial traits is correct?
A. Vestigial traits improve the biological fitness of individuals.
B. Vestigial traits cannot be explained by the theory of evolution by natural selection.
C. Humans lack vestigial traits.
D. Vestigial traits are similar to functional traits in closely related species.
Why do related species share homologous traits?
A. Related species share key similarities in development.
B. Related species have inherited homologous traits from a common ancestor.
C. Homologous traits are the products of divergent evolution.
D. Related species are adapted to similar environments.
Gill pouches in chick, human, and house-cat embryos are an example of _____.
A. developmental homology
B. genetic homology
C. structural homology
D. the inheritance of acquired characters
How is biological fitness measured?
A. Biological fitness measures the number of offspring produced by an individual.
B. Biological fitness measures the relative reproductive success of an individual relative to others in the population.
C. Biological fitness measures the overall health of an individual.
D. Biological fitness measures the longevity of an individual.
Which of these lists contains the four postulates of natural selection?
A. Variation in population, environmental variation, selection, differential survival or reproduction
B. Uniform population, heritable traits, selection, differential survival or reproduction
C. Variation in population, heritable variation, selection, unlimited survival and reproduction
D. Variation in population, heritable variation, selection, differential survival or reproduction
Which of the following statements is an accurate combination of postulates 1 and 2 of natural selection?
A. Drug resistance exists among all individuals in a population.
B. Heritable variation does not exist among individuals in a population.
C. Environmental variation exists for traits among individuals in a population.
D. Heritable variation exists for traits among individuals in a population.
Which of the following statements is an accurate combination of postulates 3 and 4 of natural selection?
A. Individuals experience uniform success in their ability to survive or reproduce.
B. Individuals experience no success in their ability to survive or reproduce.
C. Individuals experience differential success in their ability to survive or reproduce.
D. Individuals experience unlimited success in their ability to survive or reproduce.
Does the ability of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell to infect a new host depend on its drug-resistant phenotype?
A. Yes, drug-susceptible cells can infect a new host more easily than drug-resistant cells.
B. Yes, drug-resistant cells can infect a new host more easily than drug-susceptible cells.
C. No, drug-susceptible cells and drug-resistant cells are equally likely to infect a new host.
Which of the following statements describes the evolution by natural selection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in their new environment?
A. The drug-resistance trait is an adaptation to the environment in which human hosts are medicated with the antibiotic rifampin.
B. The drug-susceptiblity trait is an adaptation to the environment in which human hosts are medicated with the antibiotic rifampin.
C. The drug-susceptiblity trait is an adaptation to the environment of antibacterial soaps.
D. The drug-resistance trait is an adaptation to the environment in which human hosts travel worldwide and are exposed to new strains of bacteria.
In the United States today, about half of the corn crop is genetically engineered with a protein that is toxic to corn borers, an insect pest of corn. Which of the following conditions would be necessary for evolution of resistance to the toxic protein to occur in the corn borer?
A. The corn borers must experience no success in their ability to survive or reproduce.
B. The corn borer must have or generate (by mutation) heritable variation in resistance to the toxic protein. The resistant corn borers must survive better or reproduce more than nonresistant corn borers.
C. The corn borers must experience unlimited success in their ability to survive or reproduce.
D. The corn borer must lack variation in resistance to the toxic protein.
True or false? It would be difficult to assess whether the drug-susceptible or drug-resistant phenotype in a population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was more fit in an environment without antibiotics.
The wing of a bat is homologous to the _____ of a whale.
Evolutionary theory predicts that species are related, not independent. Four of the following examples provide support for this prediction. Which one of these examples does not support the claim that species are related?
A. Before synthetic insulin was available, diabetics used injections of purified pig insulin to manage their disease.
B. Plants that live in desert regions typically have thickened leaf surfaces to prevent water loss.
B. All prokaryotes and eukaryotes use DNA to carry their genetic information.
C. The endostyle of lancelets (invertebrate chordates) and the thyroid gland of vertebrates develop similarly, and both produce iodinated proteins.
D. Ground squirrel species found on the north and south sides of the Grand Canyon are similar behaviorally, despite being very different physically.
Your text discusses the evolution of antibiotic-resistant M. tuberculosis bacteria in a patient. Researchers discovered that the strain of M. tuberculosis taken from the dead patient has a point mutation in the rpoB gene that codes for part of the RNA polymerase enzyme. This mutant form of RNA polymerase does not normally function as well as the more common form, but a commonly used antibiotic called rifampin does not affect the mutant rpoB. A researcher places M. tuberculosis isolated from the patient a year before death (no rpoB mutation) in cell cultures with M. tuberculosis isolated from the dead patient (with rpoB mutation). Half the cell cultures contain just standard nutrients, and the other cell cultures contain rifampin in addition to the standard nutrients. After many cell generations, the researcher finds that _____. (choose one)
A. very few M. tuberculosis in any of the cell cultures carry the rpoB gene mutation
B. very few M. tuberculosis in the standard nutrient cell cultures carry the rpoB gene mutation, but almost all of the M. tuberculosis in the cell cultures with rifampin carry the rpoB mutation
C. almost all M. tuberculosis in the standard nutrient cell cultures carry the rpoB gene mutation, but very few of the M. tuberculosis in the cell cultures with rifampin carry the rpoB mutation
Which statement is correct?
A. Synapomorphies identify monophyletic groups.
B. A synapomorphy may arise due to covergent evolution.
C. Synapomorphies are examples of homoplasy.
D. A synapomorphy is an ancestral trait.
Which of the following would be useful in creating a phylogenetic tree of a taxon?
A. genetic sequences from living species
B. behavioral data from living species
C. morphological data from fossil species
D. all of the above
Your professor wants you to construct a phylogenetic tree of orchids. She gives you tissue from seven orchid species and one lily. What is the most likely reason she gave you the lily?
A. to serve as an outgroup
B. to see if it's a cryptic orchid species
C. to demonstrate likely homoplasies
D. to see if you were paying attention
E. to see if the lily and the orchids show all the same shared derived characters (synapomorphies)
Which of the following is an example of homoplasy?
A. cell walls in plants and fungi
B. scales on reptiles such as snakes and lizards
C. fur in mammals
D. chlorophyll in flowering plants and conifers
You have obtained the following data on genetic similarity among five species. The higher the number, the closer the relationship between the two species (so a species is related to itself 100%). What approach can you take to construct a phylogeny using these data?
A. Use parsimony to identify monophyletic groups.
B. Use cladistic analysis to cluster similar species.
C. Use phenetic analysis to cluster similar species.
D. Use cladistic analysis to infer the branching sequence.
E. None of the above answers is correct.
What is the ploidy of organisms that have two sets of chromosomes?
What information can not be obtained from an individual's karyotype?
A. The sequence of bases of a particular gene
B. The number of autosomes in the individual
C. The ploidy of the individual
D. The types of chromosomes present in the individual
True or false? A haploid organism has one pair of homologous chromosomes.
If a cell has 24 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would each of its four daughter cells have after meiosis?
Which of the following statements about meiosis and mitosis is true?
A. In meiosis II and mitosis, a diploid cell divides.
B. Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that sister chromatids of each chromosome separate.
C. In mitosis and meiosis I, homologous chromosomes move independently of each other.
D. Each daughter cell produced during meiosis and mitosis is genetically identical to the parent cell.
Which structure is directly correlated with the production of genetic variability in the daughter cells produced during meiosis?
What is the composition of a tetrad at the beginning of prophase I?
A. Two pairs of homologous chromosomes
B. Four different chromosomes
C. Two sister chromatids
D. One pair of homologous chromosomes
Which event makes meiosis a reduction division and why?
A. separation of homologs in meiosis I because it produces 2 haploid (n) daughter cells from a single diploid (2n) parent cell
B. separation of sister chromatids in meiosis I because it reduces the number of chromatids per chromosome
C. separation of homologs in meiosis II because it produces 2 haploid (n) daughter cells from a single diploid (2n) parent cell
D. separation of sister chromatids in meiosis II because it reduces the number of chromatids per chromosome
In an organism in which 2n = 6, how many chromosomes will be in each gamete?
Homologous chromosomes _____.
A. carry the same genes
B. carry the same alleles
C. are found only in haploid cells
D. are identical
For the duration of meiosis I, each chromosome is _____.
A. in the form of a tetrad
B. a chromosome and its homologue
C. two sister chromatids joined by a centromere
D. undergoing synapsis
Crossing over occurs _____.
A. as sister chromatids separate in anaphase II
B. during S phase
C. during prophase of mitosis
D. during synapsis of homologous chromosomes
Which of the following creates different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes in gametes?
a. meiosis II
c. crossing over
d. independent assortment
Which of the following creates new combinations of alleles along one chromosome?
b. crossing over
c. Independent assortment
d. meiosis II
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Core Topic 1 Cell Biology | IB Biology G…
BIO 114 Exam #4
Lecture 9: Fungi
Lecture 9: Fungi
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Microbio (BIO 208) Exam 1: Mastering Questions
BIO 155 FINAL 2
BIO 155 FINAL
BIO 148 Mastering Fina;
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Mastering Bio Unit 4
SCI 107 EXAM 1
Chapter 26 Review
Biology Exam 2