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48 terms

Biomolecules

Compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
STUDY
PLAY
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
What are the 4 classes or groups of biomolecules?
Monosaccharides
(such as glucose)
Monomers or building blocks of carbohydrates are ____.
Fatty Acids and Glycerol
Monomers or building blocks of lipids are ____.
Amino Acids
Monomers or building blocks of proteins are ____.
Nucleotides
Monomers or building blocks of nucleic acids are ____.
5-Carbon sugar
Phosphate Group
Nitrogenous Base
What 3 parts or subunits make up a nucleotide?
Deoxyribose (in DNA)
OR
Ribose (in RNA and ATP)
What 5-carbon sugars would you expect to find in a nucleotide?
-ose
Carbohydrates that are sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) often end in the suffix.
Any one of these:
Adenine (DNA, RNA, & ATP)
Guanine (DNA & RNA)
Cytosine (DNA & RNA)
Thymine (only DNA)
Uracil (only RNA)
What nitrogenous bases would you expect to find in a nucleotide?
Monomers
___ make up polymers. They are like building blocks.
Polymers
Monomers join together to make up ___.
Carbohydrates
Which group of biomolecules have this structure?
Monosaccharides (1 sugar big such as glucose)
Disaccharides (2 sugars big, such as sucrose)
Polysaccharides (many sugars big, such as starch or cellulose)
Carbohydrates can be classified into 3 groups based on size. What are they?
Glucose
Carbohydrate
(simple sugar or monosaccharide)
Identify this molecule.
What class of biomolecules does it belong?
Basic energy or fuel source
(This molecule is converted to ATP so the cell can do work)
How does this molecule function in cells?
1. Chloroplasts (plant cells)
2. Mitochondria (all cells)
1. Where in the cell is this molecule produced?
2. Where in the cell is this molecule converted to cellular energy or ATP?
1. Water
2. Dehydration synthesis ("building larger by taking away water")
1. What must be removed for two or monomers to join together to make a larger molecule (polymer)?
2. What is this called?
1. Water
2. Hydrolysis ("breaking by adding water"
1. What must be added to a polymer to break it down into smaller pieces?
2. What is this called?
1. Primary energy source (glucose)
2. Structure (cellulose)
3. Short-term storage (starch, glycogen)
How do carbohydrates function?
Amino Acid
Identify this molecule.
Protein
If you put many of these molecules together (by removing water), what larger molecule will they form?
Proteins
Which group of biomolecules function in building tissues, structure maintenance, and repair?
Proteins
Which group of biomolecules includes enzymes?
Muscle; Protein
The "meat" you eat (beef, chicken, ham, etc) is actually ___ and therefore, which type of biomolecule?
Antibodies
Proteins that are produced by white blood cells and circulate in your blood stream help to defend your body against foreign invaders. What type of biomolecule are antibodies?
Lipid
This type of biomolecule is nonpolar; it does not dissolve in water.
Phospholipid
This lipid has both a polar and non-polar region. It's non-polar regions face the aqueous cytoplasm and extracellular fluid making it an excellent boundary for the cell. This molecule is known as a(n) ___.
Lipids
Long-term, back-up energy storage and insulation are the functions of which biomolecule?
1. Triglycerides (true fats) such as fats, oils, & waxes
2. Phospholipids
3. Steroids
List 3 types of lipids.
Top = Saturated Fatty Acid
Bottom = Unsaturated Fatty Acid
Identify these 2 molecules
Bottom one - unsaturated fatty acid
(*Note - double bonds between some of the carbon atoms)
Which of these 2 molecules tends to be liquid at room temperature like a vegetable oil?
Lipid
(triglyceride= glycerol +fatty acids)
Identify this molecule.
1. Phospholipid bilayer
2. Cell membrane
1. Identify
2. Where woud you expect to find this?
1. Phospholipid
2. Cell membrane (or other membranes)
1. Identify this molecule.
2. Where would you expect to find it?
Dehydration synthesis
The molecules surrounded by blue circles are removed when this lipid is formed. The process is called_________ ____________.
The one on the left
(single sided)
Which molecule is RNA?
1. Double helix
2. Thymine is a nucleotide
How do you know the molecule on the right is DNA?
1. Ribose
2. Deoxyribose
1. What is the sugar in the molecule on the left?
2. What is the sugar in the molecule on the right?
nucleotide
nucleic acid
These 3 molecules make up a(n) ___ which is a monomer of ___.
DNA
Which nucleic acid functions as the Genetic Code?
DNA
Which nucleic acid functions as the instructions for synthesizing proteins?
messenger RNA
Which nucleic acid transcribes DNA's message and carries it out of the nucleus?
ATP
Name the substance that works as a high energy molecule used for cellular work?
transfer RNA
Which nucleic acid translates DNA's message into an amino acid sequence resulting in a protein?
ATP
The molecule that is like a "charged" battery, capable of doing cell work is ___.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Identify this molecule
The test tube on the left; Iodine turns from amber to blue-black in the presence of starch
Iodine is an indicator for starch which is a polysaccharide or complex carbohydrate. Which test tube has starch in it?
The test tube on the far right

(#4)
The indicator used in these test tubes is Biuret solution. Which test tube below a positive test for protein?