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World War II and The Cold War
Unit 16 Review
Terms in this set (43)
World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live; indicated sympathy for decoloniaztion.
Were the alignment of nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces. The main countries in this alliance were Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Battle of Britain
The 1940 Nazi air offensive including saturation bombing of London and other British cities, countered by British innovative air tactics and radar tracking of German assault aircraft.
Battle of Coral Sea
World War II Pacific battle; United States and Japanese forces fought to a standoff.
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
Battle of the Bulge
Hitler's last-ditch effort to repel the invading Allied armies in the winter of 1944-1945
German term for lightning warfare; involved rapid movement of airplanes, tanks and mechanized troop carriers; resulted in early German victories over Belgium, Holland, and France in World War II.
The state of relations between the United States and its allies and the soviet Union and its allies between the end of World War II and 1990; based on creation of political spheres of influence and a nuclear arms race rather than actual warfare.
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany
German field marshal noted for brilliant generalship in North Africa during World War II (1891-1944)
The Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
32nd President of the United State who was elected four times; instituted New Deal to counter the Great Depression and led country during World War II (1882-1945)
Major city in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
Term for Hitler's genocide of European Jews during World War II; resulted in deaths of 6 million Jews.
A region in northeastern China
World War II Pacific battle; decisive U.S. victory over powerful Japanese carrier force.
National Socialist Party
Also known as the Nazi party; led by Adolf Hitler in Germany; picked up political support during the economic chaos of the Great Depression; advocated authoritarian state under a single leader, aggressive foreign policy to reverse humiliation of the Versailles treaty; took power in Germany in 1933.
British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany (1869-1940)
Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland. (1939)
Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union just before the end of World War II in 1945; Allies agreed upon Soviet domination in eastern Europe; Germany and Austria to be divided among victorious Allies.
Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1943; agreed to the opening of a new front in France.
International organization formed in the aftermath of World War II; included all of the victorious Allies; its primary mission was to provide a forum for negotiating disputes.
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans.
British prime minister during World War II; responsible for British resistance to German air assaults. (1874-1965)
Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1945; agreed to Soviet entry into the Pacific war in return for possessions in Manchuria, organization of the United Nations; disputed the division of political organization in the eastern European states to be reestablished after the war.
Japanese admiral who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 (1884-1943)
Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in eastern Europe during the cold war--particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, and East Germany.
Phrase coined by Winston Churchill to describe the division between free and communist societies taking shape in Europe after 1946.
American president from 1945 to 1952; less eager for smooth relations with Soviet Union than Franklin Roosevelt; authorized use of atomic bomb during World War II; architect of American diplomacy that initiated the cold war.
Program of substantial loans initiated by the United States in 1947; designed to aid Western nations in rebuilding from the war's devastation; vehicle for American economic dominance.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Created in 1949 under United States leadership to group most of the western European powers plus Canada in a defensive alliance against possible Soviet aggression.
Alliance organized by Soviet Union with its eastern European satellites to balance formation of NATO by Western powers in 1949.
New activism of the western European state in economic policy and welfare issues after World War II; introduced programs to reduce the impact economic inequality; typically included medical programs and economic planning.
New type of bureaucrat; intensely trained in engineering or economics and devoted to the power of national planning; came to fore in offices of governments following World War II.
Political parties, especially in Europe, focusing on environmental issues and control over economic growth.
Began as European Economic Community (or Common Market) an alliance of Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, to create a single economic entity across national boundaries in 1958; later joined by Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Austria, Finland, and other nations for further European economic integration.
New wave of women's rights agitation dating from 1949; emphasized more literal equality that would play down domestic roles and qualities for women; promoted specific reforms and redefinition of what it meant to be female.
Built in 1961 to halt the flow of immigration from East Berlin to West Berlin; immigration was in response to lack of consumer goods and close Soviet control of economy and politics; torn down at end of cold war in 1991.
Polish labor movement formed in 1970s under Lech Walesa; challenged U.S.S.R.-dominated government of Poland.
Russian author critical of the Soviet regime but also of Western materialism; published trilogy on the Siberian prison camps, The Gulag Arcipelago in 1978.
Successor to Lenin as head of the U.S.S.R.; strongly nationalist view of communism; represented anti-Western strain of Russian tradition; crushed opposition to his rule; established series of five-year plans to replace New Economic Policy; fostered agricultural collectivization; led U.S.S.R. through World War II; furthered cold war with western Europe and the United States; died in 1953.
Stalin's successor as head of U.S.S.R. from 1953 to 1964; attacked Stalinism in 1956 for concentration of power and arbitrary dictatorship; failure of Siberian development program and antagonism of Stalinist led to downfall.
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