Terms in this set (55)
the Yerkes Dodson Law
Anxiety and Performance have a curvilinear relationship that is consistent and predictable
attentional control theory
- Learn to gate out irrelevant information
- Learn to control arousal and emotions
thought stopping and centering
- Displace negative thought with a positive thought.
- Center attention internally while making minor adjustments in arousal.
- Focus attention on a task-relevant cue.
- Execute the sport skill.
CNS structures - arousal
- Cerebral Cortex
- Ascending Reticular Activating System
Automatic Nerve System
Sympathetic Alarm Response
- Caused by massive SNS body stimulation.
- Fight or flight response.
- Stress response.
- SNS stimulates the adrenal medullae (norepinephrine).
- Adrenal medullae releases epinephrine and norepinephrine into blood stream
electrophysiological indicators of arousal
- Electrocortical activity in the CNS (EEG).
- Biochemical indicators in the blood.
- Heart rate and respiration rate.
- Muscle tension (EMG)
- Blood pressure.
- Palmar sweating.
- Galvanic Skin Response
Selye's Concept of Stress
- Selye defined stress as the "nonspecific response of the body to any demand placed upon it.
- Good and bad stress:
- Stress and physiological arousal correlated
- Environmental Situation
- Appraisal of Environmental Situation
- The Stress Response
Stress Response occurs if Coping Skills perceived to be inadequate
Precompetitive state anxiety
- Fear of Performance Failure
- Fear of Negative Social Evaluation
- Fear of Physical Harm
- Situation Ambiguity
- Disruption of Well-learned Routine
- Normal or adaptive perfectionism - possessed by highly motivated athletes
- Neurotic perfectionism - destructive personality characteristic predictive of high cognitive anxiety, low self-esteem, guilt, and shame
time-to-event nature of precompetitive anxiety
- Cognitive Anxiety - Starts high and remains high as event approaches. Fluctuates throughout the contest as probability of success changes.
- Somatic Anxiety - Starts low but increases rapidly as event approaches. Dissipates rapidly once event begins
relationship between arousal and performance
- Cue Utilization Theory
- Signal Detection Theory
- Information Processing Theory
- Considered to be a viable alternative to drive theory.
- Based on classic research of Yerkes and Dodson (1908).
- Best performance occurs at a moderate level of arousal.
- Changes in performance are gradual as arousal increases
cue utilization theory
- First introduced in chapter on attention.
- Predicts an inverted-U relationship between performance and arousal.
- Basic premise is that as arousal increases attention narrows.
- Narrowing of attention gates out irrelevant and eventually relevant cues
signal detection theory
- Predicts an inverted-U relationship between arousal and performance in detecting a signal.
- At a low level of arousal the organism is insensitive to signals from environment.
- At a high level of arousal the organism is overly responsive to signals from the environment
information processing theory
- Predicts an inverted-U relationship between arousal and performance.
- At low levels of arousal the information processing system is inert and unresponsive.
- At high levels of arousal the information processing system is overloaded and susceptibale to errors
drive theory and performance
- Performance = Arousal x Skill Level
- Basic Tenets:
- High arousal elicits dominant response.
- Early in learning the dominant response is the incorrect response.
- Late in learning the dominant response is the correct response
situation - appraisal - stress response
differentiating between mood and emotions
- Lazarus (2000) identified 15 different emotions, anxiety is one of them.
- Emotions are sudden reactions to a situation that last only for seconds, minutes or hours.
- Moods are more diffuse and may last for days, weeks or months.
- Affect is a general term used to refer to emotions and moods
achievement goal orientations
- Task Orientation (mastery)
- Ego Orientation (competitive)
other goal orientations
- Goal to avoid embarrassment or defeat.
- Social Approval goal orientation
developmental nature of goal orientation
- 2-6 Years of Age (task orientation)
- 7-11 Years of Age (ego orientation)
- 12 Years of Age and Older (varies)
developmental stages: differentiating
- Undifferentiated Goal Perspective (effort, ability and outcome are same).
- Beginning to Differentiate.
- Greater Ability to Differentiate.
- Differentiated Goal Perspective (effort, ability and outcome are different).
- Goal Orientation Relates to an Individual's Disposition to be either Task or Ego Oriented.
- Goal Involvement is Situation Specific, and Relates to how an Individual Responds to a Specific Achievement Situation.
Athletes receive positive reinforcement from the coach for:
- Hard work and improvement.
- Demonstrating cooperation.
- Believing that every athlete's contribution is important
Athlete perceives that:
- Poor performance is punished.
- High-ability athletes get the attention.
- Competition among athletes is encouraged
goal orientation and moral functioning
- Moral functioning is linked with good or bad sportsmanship.
Research links high levels of moral functioning with a task goal orientation.
- Research links low levels of moral functioning with an ego goal orientation
characteristics of task and ego goal orientation
- Adaptive Motivational Patterns - Athletes engage in challenging tasks that allow them to demonstrate persistence and sustained effort.
- Maladaptive motivational patterns - Athletes do not want to engage in a challenging task if they believe they can't be successful.
adaptive motivational patterns
- Generally exhibited by task goal oriented athletes.
- Can be exhibited by ego goal oriented athlete as long as they have a high perception of personal ability
maladaptive motivational pattern
Primarily exhibited by an ego goal oriented individual who has a low perception of his or her own ability
goal orientation and motivational climate interaction
- High Task Orientation in Combination with a High Mastery Climate Expected to Yield Best Results.
- Low Task Orientation in Combination with High Competitive Climate Expected to Yield Worst Results
ego goal orientation, all bad?
- Numerous studies have demonstrated that a high level of ego goal orientation can be good.
- Because the two constructs are independent, the best combination of goal orientation may be to be high in both task and ego goal orientation.
- Perceived low ability in combination with a high ego goal orientation leads to maladaptive motivational patterns
- An image can be created in the mind in the absence of any external stimuli.
- An image may involve one or all of the senses.
- An image is created from information stored in the sensory register, working memory, or long-term memory
mental practice as a form of imagery
- Imagery is generally, but not necessarily, a component part of mental practice.
- Mental practice used in a complementary fashion with physical practice often yields the best results
factors that moderate the effectiveness of mental practice
- Skill Level of the Athlete.
- Cognitive Component of the Skill.
- Time Factors and Mental Practice
measurement of imagery
Aspects of Imagery Measured:
- Preferred Style
- Imagery Use
- Imagery Vividness
imagery use and function
- Skill acquisition
- Improved performance
- Cognition modification
- Regulation of arousal and anxiety
- Increase motivation and confidence
- Psychologists agree that it is a condition of heightened acceptance of suggestions, or a condition of "hyper-suggestibility."
- Psychologists do not agree, however, on the notion that it is a condition of an "altered state of consciousness."
personality disposition toward hypnotic responsiveness
facts about hypnosis
1. Hypnotic suggestibility does not indicate personality weakness.
2. Hypnosis is not the same as sleep.
3. Hypnotic responsiveness depends most upon the person being hypnotized.
4. While hypnotized, individuals remain in control
Spontaneous amnesia is rare following hypnosis.
6. Hypnosis is not necessary for a person to be responsive to suggestions.
7. The function of hypnosis is to increase suggestibility to a small degree.
8. Hypnosis is not dangerous when practiced by qualified clinicians
Most hypnotized individuals are not faking compliance to suggestions.
10.Hypnosis cannot increase the accuracy of memory.
11.Hypnosis does not precipitate a literal re-experiencing of childhood events
or autohypnosis, can be just as effective as heterohypnosis, and does not place the athlete in a situation of dependence on the psychologist
negative hypnosis suggestions
- The purpose of self-hypnosis is to increase the athlete's acceptance of a positive suggestion.
- Positive suggestions can facilitate the desired result, but negative suggestions almost always elicit an undesirable result.
- Negative suggestions are usually unintentional
factors that improve effectiveness of hypnosis
- Competence of the professional therapist.
- Quality of the therapist-athlete relationship.
- Therapist must know and understand the athlete.
- Athlete must practice the instructions that were given during hypnosis.
- Limitations of hypnosis acknowledged.
- A release (purging) of pent-up emotion and frustration.
- An important component of instinct theory.
- Rejected by social learning theory (e.g. aggression leads to more aggression, not less).
situational factors in sports setting
- environmental temperature.
- Perception of victim's intent.
- Fear of retaliation.
- Structure of the game.
- Rivalry, familiarity, and frequency of play
notion that the presence of an audience of one or more spectators can facilitate performance
Zajonc's model of social faciliation
Based upon drive theory.
- The mere presence of an audience has the effect of increasing arousal level.
- Increased arousal will facilitate the performance of skilled athletes, but cause a performance decrement in less skilled athletes.
problems with Zajonc's model
- Must demonstrate that the 'mere' presence of an audience increases arousal.
- In the real world of sport, the audience is never 'merely' present or non-interactive.
- Sport fans insist upon interacting with the athletes
home court advantage
Varca's Theory of Assertive Behavior
- Functional assertive behavior
- Dysfunctional assertive behavior
home court disadvantage
Playing before a supportive but expectant audience can increase the cost of not winning, thereby leading to self-attention and pressing on the part of an athlete or team.
processes by which people monitor and control how they are perceived by other people
- Impression motivation - attempts by athlete to regulate other people's impression of them.
- Impression construction - types of images the athlete wishes to convey to others
effects of self-presentation
Positive performance effect.
- Social facilitation.
- Audience enhances performance.
Negative performance effect.
individuals make preplanned proactive use of effort reduction and performance excuses in order to protect their self-esteem from potential negative feedback within a social evaluative setting