20 terms

Ch. 3 U.S. History Vocabulary

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cash crop
a crop produced for its commercial value rather than for use by the grower
plantation
an estate on which crops such as coffee, sugar, and tobacco are cultivated by resident labor
indentured servant
A person under contract to work for another person for a definite period of time, usually without pay but in exchange for free passage to a new country
gentry
people of good social position, specifically (in the UK) the class of people next below the nobility in position and birth
subsistence farming
is self-sufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families
slave code
were state laws established to determine the status of slaves and the rights of their owners
Middle Passage
the sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the West Indies
selectmen
a member of the local government board of a New England town
triangular trade
a multilateral system of trading in which a country pays for its imports from one country by its exports to another
artisan
a worker in a skilled trade, especially one that involves making things by hand
entrepreneur
a person who organizes and operates a business or businesses, taking on greater than normal financial risks in order to do so
capitalist
a wealthy person who uses money to invest in trade and industry for profit in accordance with the principles of capitalism
mercantilism
belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism
natural rights
Rights that people supposedly have under natural law
Stono Rebellion
was a slave rebellion that began on 9 September 1739, in the colony of South Carolina. It was the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies, with 42-47 whites and 44 blacks killed.
Enlightenment
a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith.
rationalism
a belief or theory that opinions and actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response
Great Awakening
a series of religious revivals among Protestants in the American colonies, from c 1725-1770
pietism
a 17th-century movement for the revival of piety in the Lutheran Church
revival
an improvement in the condition or strength of something