19 terms

Biology 1.2 - Organelles

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cytoplasm
jellylike substance that holds all the organelles in place and may contain dissolved substances
ribosomes
manufacture proteins - can be found in the cytoplasm or attached to the ER
rough ER
has ribosomes on it, involved in the production & transport of proteins (which are made by the attached ribosomes)
golgi apparatus
modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell
lysosomes
contains digestive enzymes used to break down substances such as old cell parts and harmful materials
mitochondria
site of cellular respiration; converts sugars into ATP (energy)
chloroplast
capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy by photosynthesis
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments that help the cell maintain shape
flagella
organelle that is a single whip-like propeller used for locomotion (movement)
cilia
hair-like structures used to move fluid or materials past an immobile cell (such as clearing airways of mucus)
cell membrane
protects the cell from itssurroundings and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells
nucleus
control center of the cell; holds cell genetic material
vacuole
saclike structure that is used to store wastes, water, and food in the cell
central vacuole
may take up a large amount of space inside a plant cell and is used for storage - plants wilt when this organelle is not full of water
smooth ER
involved in lipid (fat) synthesis (production); also aids in detoxification
cell wall
used for rigid support and is not found in animal cells
prokaryotic cell
does not have a nucleus; bacteria are an example
eukaryotic cell
has a nucleus; plants, animals, and fungi are examples
nuclear membrane
surrounds the nucleus and encloses the genetic material
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