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discontented peasants who staged a violent struggle against Florentine government, known as the Ciompi revolt
Florence, Milan, Venice, Papal States, Kingdom of Naples
five dominant city-states during the medieval ages
the central idea that defined the Renaissance; a literary movement which began in Italy during the 14th c.
the idea of concerning oneself with worldly things more than religious ones i.e. money, materialism, pleasures
philosophers who glorified the individual and believed that man was the measure of all things and had unlimited potential
a book that sought to describe the ideal man of the age, knowing several languages, familiar with classical literature, and skilled in the arts. defined today as a "Renaissance man"
author of "The Decameron" which is considered the best prose piece of the Renaissance
Christine de Pisan
an Italian feminist who wrote "The City of Ladies" saying that women have to carve out their own space or move to a "City of Ladies" in order for their abilities to be allowed to flourish
the time period during which Rome replaced Florence as the great center of artistic patronage, especially from popes
author of "Utopia" and was decapitated by Henry VIII for not supporting the break from the Catholic Church
focused on broad programs of social reform based on Christian ideals, not secularism or individualism
greatest of the N. Humanists, wrote "In Praise of Folly" which satirized what he felt were problems in the Church, translated the New Testament into Latin
the genius of the Elizabethan Renaissance, author of such plays as "Hamlet" and "Macbeth"
the break from the Catholic Church, led by Martin Luther, that was one of the greatest revolutions of the time
wrote "The Prince" which is a virtual instruction manual for a prince/ruler on the manner in which he should rule. Rulers should rule by methods that ignore right/wrong. "The ends justify the means."
wrote "The Six Books on the State" which outlined the first systematic & clear conception that absolute sovereignty resides in the nation regardless of the forms of government. The "state" was an absolute sovereign that tolerated no rival legal authority above it except God. Contributed to the rise of absolutism in Europe
War of the Roses
conflict between the House of York (white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose)
effort by the Spanish rulers Ferdinand V of Aragon and Isabella of Castile to rid the Iberian peninsula from Moorish presence and solidify a Christian kingdom of Spain
local police force in Spain during the Reconquista and thereafter to strengthen royal justice
Revived by Ferdinand V and Isabella to persecute heretics such as Jews, ultimately led to the expulsion of all Jews from Spain
painted portraits of everyday life that captured the spirit of the Dutch people, seen in "The Laughing Cavalier"
the practice of selling church offices to the highest bidders. also the practice of holding multiple positions
sold these as pardons, supposedly to reduce the punishment in the hereafter for certain sins. greatly supported by Tetzel
time period where the papacy was under the influence of the French Monarch, moving the center of the Church to Avignon, named after the period of exile of the Jews in Babylon in the 500s BCE
time when two different popes claimed legitimacy, and both excommunicated the other. a third pope was later added to the mix.
forerunner of Luther, denied pope's supreme religious authority, translated the Bible into English, and encouraged self-interpretation of the Bible.
forerunner of Luther, advocated similar ideas of Wycliffe but acted in Bohemia. His execution led to a huge rebellion against the church that was immensely costly to subdue
German friar who posted the "95 Theses", was against social reform, wanted only religious reform
priesthood of all believers
Luther's belief that people were free from the complete authority of the Church
Peace of Augsburg
signed 1555 to end the Schmalkaldic Wars, recognized Lutheranism as a legitimate religion of state
denied the idea of infant baptism, believed that baptism should be done only by adults who are fully aware of the decision they are making
Swiss patriot who had similar ideas to Luther with some important differences: denied all sacraments and Christ wasn't present in Communion, he's present in everything around us
founder of Calvinism, wrote "Institutes of the Christian Religion" arguing for predestination, no free will
led by King Henry VIII who wanted to marry Anne Boleyn but needed to divorce Catherine of Aragon to do that. Eventually, in order to have his marriage with Anne, he broke with the Catholic Church and formed the Church of England (Anglican Church)
Act of Supremacy
Parliament passed this act to make the king of England instead of the pope the head of the Church of England. He also seized church property while persecuting Protestants as heretics.
Book of Common Prayer
Written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, includes the order for all services of the Church of England
Queen Mary of Scotland
earned the nickname "Bloody Mary" for her persecution of her opponents, mainly Protestants
in 1588, Philip II assembled this fleet to fight against Elizabeth I's fleet but lost greatly. This marks the rise of England's naval supremacy and the decline of Spanish naval power
a movement that included the "Index of Prohibited Books," the Council of Trent and the rise of the Jesuit society
Index of Prohibited Books
this included works by writers such as Erasmus and Galileo, a list of works that were prohibited by the Church during the Counter-Reformation
Council of Trent
the centerpiece of the Counter-Reformation, sought to place the papacy under the control of a church council or parliament. it took steps to address some of the issues that had sparked the Reformation, including placing limits on the selling of church offices.
Concordat de Bologna
treaty between Francis I and the papacy that recognized the supremacy of the papacy in return for the right to appoint French bishops. Established Catholicism as the state religion in France, but with the spread of Huguenot influence in France, it led to tensions.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
August 24, 1572, a massacre of over 20,000 French Huguenots and led to civil strife between Protestants and Catholics
Calvinist and member of the Bourbon family, became king, said the quote "Paris is worth a Mass" issuing the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
granted religious and civil freedom to the Protestant minority in France, supported by Henry IV
Thirty Years War
most important and bloodiest of the religious wars. It came after the Peace of Augsburg which didn't recognize Calvinism as a religion. This led to conflict between the Protestant Union (supported by the English, Dutch, French) against the Catholic League (Spain & Hapsburg Empire)
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