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87 terms

AP Euro Exam prep - Renaissance, Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation

Sources: CliffsAP European History, Cracking the AP European Exam (TPR)
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Renaissance
When was the modern notion of individualism born?
Renaissance
meaning "rebirth"
Italy
place where Renaissance began
Northern Renaissance
the more religious Renaissance movement
Northern Renaissance
the foundation movement for the Protestant Reformation
oligarchy
the ruling form of government during Renaissance Italy
popolo
discontented peasants who staged a violent struggle against Florentine government, known as the Ciompi revolt
Sforza family
mercenary family that ruled Milan during the Renaissance
Medici family
behind-the-scene rulers of Florence, established wealth through banking
Florence, Milan, Venice, Papal States, Kingdom of Naples
five dominant city-states during the medieval ages
Florence
the most dominant of Italian cities which became known as the symbol of the Renaissance
Quattrocento
historical term for the Golden Age of the Renaissance
Humanism
the central idea that defined the Renaissance; a literary movement which began in Italy during the 14th c.
secularism
the idea of concerning oneself with worldly things more than religious ones i.e. money, materialism, pleasures
Humanism
philosophers who glorified the individual and believed that man was the measure of all things and had unlimited potential
Renaissance Man
the well-rounded education that the Humanists supported led to this type of person
Petrarch
"father of Humanism", sought out classical texts of works done by people such as Cicero
Pico della Mirandola
wrote "Oration on the Dignity of Man"
"The Courtier"
a book that sought to describe the ideal man of the age, knowing several languages, familiar with classical literature, and skilled in the arts. defined today as a "Renaissance man"
Lorenzo Valla
proved that the "Donation of Constantine" was a forged document
Leonardo Bruni
proponent of women's education, wrote "The History of the Florentine Peoples"
Giovanni Boccaccio
author of "The Decameron" which is considered the best prose piece of the Renaissance
Christine de Pisan
an Italian feminist who wrote "The City of Ladies" saying that women have to carve out their own space or move to a "City of Ladies" in order for their abilities to be allowed to flourish
High Renaissance
the time period during which Rome replaced Florence as the great center of artistic patronage, especially from popes
Leonardo da Vinci
a Renaissance man, painter of the "Mona Lisa"
Raphael
painter of "The School of Athens"
Michelangelo
sculpted "David", worked on the Sistine Chapel, and painted the "Final Judgment"
Johannes Gutenberg
German inventor of the printing press
Thomas More
author of "Utopia" and was decapitated by Henry VIII for not supporting the break from the Catholic Church
Northern Humanists
focused on broad programs of social reform based on Christian ideals, not secularism or individualism
Desiderius Erasmus
greatest of the N. Humanists, wrote "In Praise of Folly" which satirized what he felt were problems in the Church, translated the New Testament into Latin
Geoffrey Chaucer
author of "Canterbury Tales"
Shakespeare
the genius of the Elizabethan Renaissance, author of such plays as "Hamlet" and "Macbeth"
Protestant Reformation
the break from the Catholic Church, led by Martin Luther, that was one of the greatest revolutions of the time
Rabelais
French classicist, wrote "Gargantua" and "Pantagruel"
Michel Eyqem de Montaigne
introduced the essay as a literary form to Europe
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote "The Prince" which is a virtual instruction manual for a prince/ruler on the manner in which he should rule. Rulers should rule by methods that ignore right/wrong. "The ends justify the means."
Jean Bodin
wrote "The Six Books on the State" which outlined the first systematic & clear conception that absolute sovereignty resides in the nation regardless of the forms of government. The "state" was an absolute sovereign that tolerated no rival legal authority above it except God. Contributed to the rise of absolutism in Europe
Hundred Years' War
series of wars fought between France and England (1337-1453)
War of the Roses
conflict between the House of York (white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose)
Henry Tudor
also known as Henry VII, victor of the War of the Roses, Lancasterian
Star Chamber
established by Henry VII, this was a court to check Aristocratic power
Reconquista
effort by the Spanish rulers Ferdinand V of Aragon and Isabella of Castile to rid the Iberian peninsula from Moorish presence and solidify a Christian kingdom of Spain
hermandades
local police force in Spain during the Reconquista and thereafter to strengthen royal justice
Spanish Inquisition
Revived by Ferdinand V and Isabella to persecute heretics such as Jews, ultimately led to the expulsion of all Jews from Spain
marranos or conversos
Jewish converts in Spain
Frans Hals
painted portraits of everyday life that captured the spirit of the Dutch people, seen in "The Laughing Cavalier"
Albrecht Durer
famous for his metal and wood engravings, did "Praying Hands"
simony
the practice of selling church offices to the highest bidders. also the practice of holding multiple positions
indulgences
sold these as pardons, supposedly to reduce the punishment in the hereafter for certain sins. greatly supported by Tetzel
Babylonian Captivity
time period where the papacy was under the influence of the French Monarch, moving the center of the Church to Avignon, named after the period of exile of the Jews in Babylon in the 500s BCE
Great Schism
time when two different popes claimed legitimacy, and both excommunicated the other. a third pope was later added to the mix.
Council of Constance
meeting that ended the Great Schism and elected Martin V as the new pope
John Wycliffe
forerunner of Luther, denied pope's supreme religious authority, translated the Bible into English, and encouraged self-interpretation of the Bible.
Jan Hus
forerunner of Luther, advocated similar ideas of Wycliffe but acted in Bohemia. His execution led to a huge rebellion against the church that was immensely costly to subdue
Martin Luther
German friar who posted the "95 Theses", was against social reform, wanted only religious reform
Lollards
followers of John Wycliffe
Frederick the Elector of Saxony
provided a haven for Luther while he was being chased by the Church
Transubstantiation
the literal transformation of the bread and wine into Christ's body and blood
priesthood of all believers
Luther's belief that people were free from the complete authority of the Church
Schmalkaldic Wars
War between Charles V and Protestant princes.
Peace of Augsburg
signed 1555 to end the Schmalkaldic Wars, recognized Lutheranism as a legitimate religion of state
Anabaptist
denied the idea of infant baptism, believed that baptism should be done only by adults who are fully aware of the decision they are making
Antitrinitarians
Protestants who denied the idea of the Holy Trinity
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss patriot who had similar ideas to Luther with some important differences: denied all sacraments and Christ wasn't present in Communion, he's present in everything around us
John Calvin
founder of Calvinism, wrote "Institutes of the Christian Religion" arguing for predestination, no free will
predestination
the idea that ones salvation has already been predetermined by God
Huguenots
French branch of Calvinism
Puritans
English branch of Calvinism
English Reformation
led by King Henry VIII who wanted to marry Anne Boleyn but needed to divorce Catherine of Aragon to do that. Eventually, in order to have his marriage with Anne, he broke with the Catholic Church and formed the Church of England (Anglican Church)
Act of Supremacy
Parliament passed this act to make the king of England instead of the pope the head of the Church of England. He also seized church property while persecuting Protestants as heretics.
Book of Common Prayer
Written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, includes the order for all services of the Church of England
Queen Mary of Scotland
earned the nickname "Bloody Mary" for her persecution of her opponents, mainly Protestants
The Acts of Six Articles
passed in 1539 by Parliament making Catholic beliefs obligatory in England
Edward VI
Henry VIII's successor, introduced Calvinism
Spanish Armada
in 1588, Philip II assembled this fleet to fight against Elizabeth I's fleet but lost greatly. This marks the rise of England's naval supremacy and the decline of Spanish naval power
Counter-Reformation
a movement that included the "Index of Prohibited Books," the Council of Trent and the rise of the Jesuit society
Index of Prohibited Books
this included works by writers such as Erasmus and Galileo, a list of works that were prohibited by the Church during the Counter-Reformation
Council of Trent
the centerpiece of the Counter-Reformation, sought to place the papacy under the control of a church council or parliament. it took steps to address some of the issues that had sparked the Reformation, including placing limits on the selling of church offices.
Jesuits
society begun by Ignatius Loyola, distinguished as a teaching order
Concordat de Bologna
treaty between Francis I and the papacy that recognized the supremacy of the papacy in return for the right to appoint French bishops. Established Catholicism as the state religion in France, but with the spread of Huguenot influence in France, it led to tensions.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
August 24, 1572, a massacre of over 20,000 French Huguenots and led to civil strife between Protestants and Catholics
Henry IV
Calvinist and member of the Bourbon family, became king, said the quote "Paris is worth a Mass" issuing the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
granted religious and civil freedom to the Protestant minority in France, supported by Henry IV
Thirty Years War
most important and bloodiest of the religious wars. It came after the Peace of Augsburg which didn't recognize Calvinism as a religion. This led to conflict between the Protestant Union (supported by the English, Dutch, French) against the Catholic League (Spain & Hapsburg Empire)
Thirty Years War
War with 4 phases: Bohemian phase; Danish phase; Swedish phase; French phase
Peace of Westphalia
Ended the Thirty Years War in 1648, renewing the Peace of Augsburg, recognized Calvinism, Edict of Restitution revoked, German princes granted sovereignty, papacy denied the right to participate in German religious affairs