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Sources: CliffsAP European History, Cracking the AP European Exam (TPR)


When was the modern notion of individualism born?


meaning "rebirth"


place where Renaissance began

Northern Renaissance

the more religious Renaissance movement

Northern Renaissance

the foundation movement for the Protestant Reformation


the ruling form of government during Renaissance Italy


discontented peasants who staged a violent struggle against Florentine government, known as the Ciompi revolt

Sforza family

mercenary family that ruled Milan during the Renaissance

Medici family

behind-the-scene rulers of Florence, established wealth through banking

Florence, Milan, Venice, Papal States, Kingdom of Naples

five dominant city-states during the medieval ages


the most dominant of Italian cities which became known as the symbol of the Renaissance


historical term for the Golden Age of the Renaissance


the central idea that defined the Renaissance; a literary movement which began in Italy during the 14th c.


the idea of concerning oneself with worldly things more than religious ones i.e. money, materialism, pleasures


philosophers who glorified the individual and believed that man was the measure of all things and had unlimited potential

Renaissance Man

the well-rounded education that the Humanists supported led to this type of person


"father of Humanism", sought out classical texts of works done by people such as Cicero

Pico della Mirandola

wrote "Oration on the Dignity of Man"

"The Courtier"

a book that sought to describe the ideal man of the age, knowing several languages, familiar with classical literature, and skilled in the arts. defined today as a "Renaissance man"

Lorenzo Valla

proved that the "Donation of Constantine" was a forged document

Leonardo Bruni

proponent of women's education, wrote "The History of the Florentine Peoples"

Giovanni Boccaccio

author of "The Decameron" which is considered the best prose piece of the Renaissance

Christine de Pisan

an Italian feminist who wrote "The City of Ladies" saying that women have to carve out their own space or move to a "City of Ladies" in order for their abilities to be allowed to flourish

High Renaissance

the time period during which Rome replaced Florence as the great center of artistic patronage, especially from popes

Leonardo da Vinci

a Renaissance man, painter of the "Mona Lisa"


painter of "The School of Athens"


sculpted "David", worked on the Sistine Chapel, and painted the "Final Judgment"

Johannes Gutenberg

German inventor of the printing press

Thomas More

author of "Utopia" and was decapitated by Henry VIII for not supporting the break from the Catholic Church

Northern Humanists

focused on broad programs of social reform based on Christian ideals, not secularism or individualism

Desiderius Erasmus

greatest of the N. Humanists, wrote "In Praise of Folly" which satirized what he felt were problems in the Church, translated the New Testament into Latin

Geoffrey Chaucer

author of "Canterbury Tales"


the genius of the Elizabethan Renaissance, author of such plays as "Hamlet" and "Macbeth"

Protestant Reformation

the break from the Catholic Church, led by Martin Luther, that was one of the greatest revolutions of the time


French classicist, wrote "Gargantua" and "Pantagruel"

Michel Eyqem de Montaigne

introduced the essay as a literary form to Europe

Niccolo Machiavelli

wrote "The Prince" which is a virtual instruction manual for a prince/ruler on the manner in which he should rule. Rulers should rule by methods that ignore right/wrong. "The ends justify the means."

Jean Bodin

wrote "The Six Books on the State" which outlined the first systematic & clear conception that absolute sovereignty resides in the nation regardless of the forms of government. The "state" was an absolute sovereign that tolerated no rival legal authority above it except God. Contributed to the rise of absolutism in Europe

Hundred Years' War

series of wars fought between France and England (1337-1453)

War of the Roses

conflict between the House of York (white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose)

Henry Tudor

also known as Henry VII, victor of the War of the Roses, Lancasterian

Star Chamber

established by Henry VII, this was a court to check Aristocratic power


effort by the Spanish rulers Ferdinand V of Aragon and Isabella of Castile to rid the Iberian peninsula from Moorish presence and solidify a Christian kingdom of Spain


local police force in Spain during the Reconquista and thereafter to strengthen royal justice

Spanish Inquisition

Revived by Ferdinand V and Isabella to persecute heretics such as Jews, ultimately led to the expulsion of all Jews from Spain

marranos or conversos

Jewish converts in Spain

Frans Hals

painted portraits of everyday life that captured the spirit of the Dutch people, seen in "The Laughing Cavalier"

Albrecht Durer

famous for his metal and wood engravings, did "Praying Hands"


the practice of selling church offices to the highest bidders. also the practice of holding multiple positions


sold these as pardons, supposedly to reduce the punishment in the hereafter for certain sins. greatly supported by Tetzel

Babylonian Captivity

time period where the papacy was under the influence of the French Monarch, moving the center of the Church to Avignon, named after the period of exile of the Jews in Babylon in the 500s BCE

Great Schism

time when two different popes claimed legitimacy, and both excommunicated the other. a third pope was later added to the mix.

Council of Constance

meeting that ended the Great Schism and elected Martin V as the new pope

John Wycliffe

forerunner of Luther, denied pope's supreme religious authority, translated the Bible into English, and encouraged self-interpretation of the Bible.

Jan Hus

forerunner of Luther, advocated similar ideas of Wycliffe but acted in Bohemia. His execution led to a huge rebellion against the church that was immensely costly to subdue

Martin Luther

German friar who posted the "95 Theses", was against social reform, wanted only religious reform


followers of John Wycliffe

Frederick the Elector of Saxony

provided a haven for Luther while he was being chased by the Church


the literal transformation of the bread and wine into Christ's body and blood

priesthood of all believers

Luther's belief that people were free from the complete authority of the Church

Schmalkaldic Wars

War between Charles V and Protestant princes.

Peace of Augsburg

signed 1555 to end the Schmalkaldic Wars, recognized Lutheranism as a legitimate religion of state


denied the idea of infant baptism, believed that baptism should be done only by adults who are fully aware of the decision they are making


Protestants who denied the idea of the Holy Trinity

Ulrich Zwingli

Swiss patriot who had similar ideas to Luther with some important differences: denied all sacraments and Christ wasn't present in Communion, he's present in everything around us

John Calvin

founder of Calvinism, wrote "Institutes of the Christian Religion" arguing for predestination, no free will


the idea that ones salvation has already been predetermined by God


French branch of Calvinism


English branch of Calvinism

English Reformation

led by King Henry VIII who wanted to marry Anne Boleyn but needed to divorce Catherine of Aragon to do that. Eventually, in order to have his marriage with Anne, he broke with the Catholic Church and formed the Church of England (Anglican Church)

Act of Supremacy

Parliament passed this act to make the king of England instead of the pope the head of the Church of England. He also seized church property while persecuting Protestants as heretics.

Book of Common Prayer

Written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, includes the order for all services of the Church of England

Queen Mary of Scotland

earned the nickname "Bloody Mary" for her persecution of her opponents, mainly Protestants

The Acts of Six Articles

passed in 1539 by Parliament making Catholic beliefs obligatory in England

Edward VI

Henry VIII's successor, introduced Calvinism

Spanish Armada

in 1588, Philip II assembled this fleet to fight against Elizabeth I's fleet but lost greatly. This marks the rise of England's naval supremacy and the decline of Spanish naval power


a movement that included the "Index of Prohibited Books," the Council of Trent and the rise of the Jesuit society

Index of Prohibited Books

this included works by writers such as Erasmus and Galileo, a list of works that were prohibited by the Church during the Counter-Reformation

Council of Trent

the centerpiece of the Counter-Reformation, sought to place the papacy under the control of a church council or parliament. it took steps to address some of the issues that had sparked the Reformation, including placing limits on the selling of church offices.


society begun by Ignatius Loyola, distinguished as a teaching order

Concordat de Bologna

treaty between Francis I and the papacy that recognized the supremacy of the papacy in return for the right to appoint French bishops. Established Catholicism as the state religion in France, but with the spread of Huguenot influence in France, it led to tensions.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24, 1572, a massacre of over 20,000 French Huguenots and led to civil strife between Protestants and Catholics

Henry IV

Calvinist and member of the Bourbon family, became king, said the quote "Paris is worth a Mass" issuing the Edict of Nantes

Edict of Nantes

granted religious and civil freedom to the Protestant minority in France, supported by Henry IV

Thirty Years War

most important and bloodiest of the religious wars. It came after the Peace of Augsburg which didn't recognize Calvinism as a religion. This led to conflict between the Protestant Union (supported by the English, Dutch, French) against the Catholic League (Spain & Hapsburg Empire)

Thirty Years War

War with 4 phases: Bohemian phase; Danish phase; Swedish phase; French phase

Peace of Westphalia

Ended the Thirty Years War in 1648, renewing the Peace of Augsburg, recognized Calvinism, Edict of Restitution revoked, German princes granted sovereignty, papacy denied the right to participate in German religious affairs

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