84 terms

MGT 341

Environmental damage inevitably threatens the welfare of human beings as well as plants and animals. Threats to the environment come from two sources: pollution and resource
The undesirable and unintended contamination of the environment by the manufacture or use of commodities is commonly referred to as
_____________refers to the consumption of finite or scarce resources
Resource depletion
The release of CFCs into the atmosphere may lead to several hundred thousand new cases of skin cancer each year and destroy many valuable food crops. Also, ocean plankton-on which the entire ocean's food chain depends-may be severely damaged. This is referred to as
Ozone depletion
Acid rain is caused by
fossil fuels
Because our environment is so complex and its parts are so interwoven, many theorists believe that our duty to protect the environment extends beyond the welfare of humans to other nonhuman parts of the system. This idea is called
Ecological ethiocs or deep ecology
__________is privacy with respect to a person's inner life. This includes the person's thoughts and plans, personal beliefs and values, feelings, and wants.
Psyschological privacy
In this view, the employee's main moral duty is to work toward the goals of the firm. This view is referred to as
Law of Agency
A firm's main moral duty to its employees is to provide them with
Fair wage or fair working conditions
Few views of deep ecology are unusual and/or controversial
The saving or rationing of natural resources for later use is referred to as:
We cannot rely on market mechanisms to ensure adequate conservation for future generations. One reason for this is the needs of future generations are so heavily discounted by markets that they hardly affect prices at all.
One of the objections to virtue theory is it's inconsistent with modern psychology.
Moral decisions are based on two different processes: one of these processes is an unconscious use of prototypes.
World peace is an example of an Instrumental Value rather than an Intrinsic Value.
Employees' rights to privacy always dominate employers' rights to know certain information about their activities.
Whistle blowing-the attempt by an employee to disclose wrongdoing in an organization-can take two forms.
Whistle blowing seldom has heavy personal costs to the whistleblower because it is justified when there is clear evidence that the firm's activity is seriously harming others and reasonable attempts to prevent it by informing management have failed.
Any employee has a moral obligation to engage in whistle blowing, even when the wrong does not involve serious harm to society's overall welfare.
resource depletion
using up a scarce resource
result of contaminating a resource untril it cannot be used
John Allison (BB&T) values
1) Reality(Fact-Based)
2) Reason (Objectiveity)
3) Independent Thinking
4) Productivity
7) Justice(Fairness)
9) Seld-Esteem (Slef-mitivation)
10) Teamwork/Mutual Supportiveness
Main soucres used by the author of the Integrity article
The Old Testiment, The New testiment, Aristotle, Kant, Halfin, Adler&Bird
Drayton Nabers Video
-Love= Fairness
-Humility, Courage, Integrity and Love
-Virtue as opposed to ethical behavior
"Cheating our Children" -Paul Krugman's Argument
1) Utilitarianiam
2) Kantian Rights &Duties
3) Rawls Justice
Claim Ethics
-do not have to be impartial (unlike utilitarian, rights, justice)
-emphasize preserving and nurturing concrete valuable relationships
-based on the feminist approach
Care Approach values
Malden Mills in MA. Freuerstein
After fire destroyed the mill hd rebuilt the mill in Lawrence because he cared for workers and valued them> Utilitarian, Rights and justice would disagree
ethic of care
an ethic that requires caring for the concrete well being of those particular persons with whom we have valuable close relationships, particularly those dependent on us
communitarian ethic
an ethic that sees concrete relationships as having fundamental value that should be preserved and maintained
Objections to care ethics
-an ethic of care can degenerate into favoritism
-an ethic of care can lead to "burnout"
Three forms of caring
-Caring for something
-Caring after someone
-caring for someone
Moral Judgments should be based on
-Maximizing the net utility of our actions
-Respecting the moral rights of individuals
-Ensuring a just distribution of benefits and burdens
-Caring for those in concrete relationships
Boundaries of Caring
-Not all relationships have value
-Caring may conflict with justice (dont favor your friends as manager, bad for company)
moral virtue
An acquired disposition that is valued as part of the character of a morally good human being and that is exhibited in the person's habitual behavior
considers aggregate social welfare but ignored the individual and distribution considerations
considers the individual but ignores aggregate and distribution considerations
considers distribution issues but ignores aggregate and individual issues
considers partially but ignores society and others not in your friendship web
Moral Standards
1) Maximize Social Utility
2) Respect moral rights
3) Distibute Benefits and Burdens justly
4) Exercise caring
action based theorey
all 4 theories we have learned, look at an action to determine whether it is moral or ethical
agent-based theory
look at the persons character performing the act
Aristotle's theory of virtue
Avoid Extremes. Virtues are habits that enable a person to live according to reason by habitually choosing the mean between extremes in actions and emotions
Virtue theory
the theory that the aim of the moral life is to develop those general dispositions called moral virtues, and to exercise and exhibit them in the many situations that human life sets before us
Virtue theory . An action is morally right if
in carrying out the action the agent exercises, exhibits or develops a morally virtuous character
Virtue theory . An action is morally wrong if
in carrying out the action the agent exercises, exhibits or develops a morally vicious character
Moral Intuitions
prototypes can be shaped by "hardwired" moral intuitions, as well as by conscious moral reasoning and cultural influences
Hardwire intuitions seem to include
-incest is wrong
-harming by action is worse than harming by omission
-harming as a means to a goal is worse than harming as a foreseen side effect
-harming by physical contact is worse than harming without physical contact
basic conviction that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence
Rokeach's values
Instrumental and Terminal
Instrumental values
Mode of conduct
-ex: cheerful, honest, loving
Terminal Values
Desired end states of existence
-ex: world peace, freedom, happiness
Value System
ranking of individual values according to their relative importance to you
Primary of core values
define who you are, ones you never break
Secondary values
importance, but can break
Peripheral values
those you recognize but do not live by
Diagram of Ethical behavior system ( In order of importance)
1) Values
2) Moral Standards
3) Moral Reasoning
4) Ethics
operating layer
those employees and their immediate supervisors who directly produce the goods and services
law of agency
that part of the law that specifies the legal duties of "agents"(employees) towards their "Principals" (employers)
objective conflicts of interest
conflicts of interest that are based on financial relationships
subjective conflicts of interest
conflicts of interest that are based on emotional ties or on relationships
apparent conflict of interest
a situation where an employee has no actual conflict of interest but those looking at the situation may come to wrongly believe they do
commercial bride
a consideration given or offered to an employee by a person outside the firm with the understanding that when the employee transacts business form the firm the employee will deal favorably with that person or that persons firm
insider trading
the act of buying and selling companys stock on the basis of inside information
employer morally responsible for bad working conditions if
-can and should improve them
-knows about them
-is not prevented from changing them
Major types of land pollution
toxic substances, solid wastes, nuclear wastes
ecological system
an interrelated and interdependent set of organism and environment
ecological ethics (deep ecology)
nonhuman parts of the environment deserve to be preserved for their own sake, regardless of whether this benefits human beings
blackstones concept of environment rights
human have a right to fulfill their capacities as free and rational and a livable environment is essential to such fulfillment
Rights theory
environmental laws should impose absolute bans on pollution rgardless of cost/benefits
Utility theory
examine the costs and benefits
weaknesses of blackstones theory
if you have the right no one can violate it but what if a little pollution helps a lot of people?
Private cost
the cost an individual or company must pay out of its own pocket to engage in a particular economic activity
social cost
the private internal costs plus the external costs of engaging in a particular economic activity
private cost of polluting< Social cost
Industries pollute because its cheaper
Market Inefficiencies
Social costs> Internal costs
1) Product in under priced and over produced
2) Firms have no incentive to reduce external costs because they do not pay them
Internalize pollution costs
-reimburse those bearing the external costs
(works only if polluter can be identified)
- Polluter stops pollution from reaching others, monitors pollution
Retributive Justice Theory
requires those responsible for an injury bear the burden of rectifying it
Compensatory Justice Theory
requires those injured be compensated by those who injured them
Rawls theory
leave the world no worse then we found it
Rights of future generations
by not conserving we are takin away the rights of future generations to enjoy what we enjoy
Problems with conserving for future generations
1) They do not exist and may never exist
2) We may have to sacrifice our ENTIRE civilization to save resources for future generations
3) We do not know they will be interested in having the resources we save
Ethics of Depletable Resources
-COnservation is saving or rationing resources for later use
-Pollution control is a form of conversation
-We conserve resources for future generations
Market Mechanism Flaws
-Multiple Access
-Short time horizons
-Inadequate forecasting
-Special influences