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126 terms

WWII and Cold War (1941-1960)

"Give Me Liberty" textbook
STUDY
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Another name for WWII is...
"The Good War"
What are the two common assumptions about why the US fought in WWII?
To stop Hitler
To save the Jews
When did the US enter WWII?
1941
What are the resons for why the US had such a slow response to the Holocaust?
Wide Spread Anti-Semitism
Depression (no jobs)--> fear about new immigrants
FDR
Isolationism after WWI
When was Pearl Harbor?
1941
What countries were in the GRAND ALLIANCES?
Britian, US, Soviet Union
Was the GRAND ALLIANCE a success or fail?
both
What was the 'Europe First' strategy?
FDR said we would fight Hitler first then Japan. Felt like we had to prove to Russia that we would help.
What is the 'Unconditional Surrender' policy?
US will fight in Europe until they surrender with NO conditions
Who was the egotist leader of Britian?
Churchill
Who was the egotist leader of Russia?
Stalin
Who was the president of US at the time?
FDR
What was the "great success" of the Grand Alliance?
They defeated Hitler even when they were not friends
What was the "great failure" of the Grand Allience?
We lost peace between the 3 countries
What does the fail of the Grand Alliance lead to?
The Cold War
"Cold War Myths"
the Russians are only bad
What is the Red Scare?
the fear of communism
Why does the Red Scare develop?
....look in notes
National Security Act
government becomes more secrative and militaristic
Pentagon
CIA
NSC
What is the CIA?
spies
What is the Pentagon?
All the military leaders in one spot
What is the NCS?
A group of people that advise the Pres. Not a public running
Who started the Taft-Hartley Act?
Big Business
What did the Taft-Hartley Act do?
Made labor union workers publically sware that they were not a communist
What is the Hiss Case?
A government worker in the US accused of being a Russian spy
Who is Alger Hiss?
A US government worker that was accused of being a Soviet spy
How did the Cold War become a nuclear bomb war?
Russia gets the bomb in 1940. Now they are equally as powerful to us
When was the Nuclear Arms Race?
1950-1992
What is the nuclear Arms Race?
EAch side trying to make a bigger bomb
What does MAD stand for?
Mutually Assured Destruction
Three things that scared us in 1949
1) Soviets develop the atomic bomb
2) China becomes communist
3) North Korea attacks South Korea
"One World"
freedom, democracy, prosperity, no barriers
Why is the military strategy important for the success of the GRAND ALLIENCE?
because there was no treaty that ended the war
When was Pearl Harbor?
December 7, 1941
When was the FIRST FRONT?
1941
What is the FIRST FRONT?
When Germany attacked Russia
What percent of Hitler did Russia help defeat?
86% on the Eastern Front
How many of Russians were killed in WWII?
at least 20 million - they lost the most lives of any country
Why were there so many Russians killed by Hitler?
he saw them as Jews and slaughtered them
Who demands the SECOND FRONT?
Stalins
Why does Stalin want a SECOND FRONT?
So the US will show their loyalty to the Grand Allience and to take pressure off the western front
What did the SECOND FRONT call for the US to do?
Attack France
What did Churchill think of the SECOND FRONT?
we shouldnt do it because too many people will die and its too expensive
What did the US and Britian do instead of doing the SECOND FRONT?
they attacked the Mediterranean and invade North Africa and Italy
Where does the SECOND fRONT stall?
Italy
When was the Battle of Stalingrad?
1942
Who was in the Battle of Stalingrad?
Russia and Hitler
Who won the Battle of Stalingrad?
Russia
What does the Battle of Stalingrad do?
Begins the push og Hitler out of Russia
Where do the US and the Russian troops meet?
The Elbe River
What happens at the Eble River?
Russian and US troops shake hands
When Truman drops the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki what happens?
This is the first act of the Cold War
What is D DAy
1944, lauching of the second front in Normandy
Which side of the GRAND ALLIENCE caused the Cold War?
both, it was a big missunderstanding
What do Americans call Stalin (Russias leader) during WWII?
Uncle Joe
Who was Joe McCarthy?
Bad Senator
How did Joe McCarthy gain popularity?
Scared Americans
What did Joe McCarthy do?
Increased the Red Scare
When did Dienbienphu happen?
1954
Who was in Dienbienphu?
Vietman vs France
What is Sputnik
Space Satlite, Race to the Moon, Russia
Who is Alger Hiss?
Us government worker accused of being a communist spy
When does Russia get the bomb?
1940
What are examples of how the US was winning the Cold War away but losing it at home?
Potsdam Conference, Truman Doctorine, Marshall Plan, National secutity Act, Tafy-Hartley Act, Hiss Case,
What is the Yalta Conference?
Creates the GRAND ALLIENCE
What did George Kennan write?
The Containment Theory
What is the Containment Theroy?
The US policy towards Russia
Does Truman endorse the Containment Theory?
YES
When was the Truman Doctrine?
1947
What did the Truman Doctorine say?
Stand up to the Soviet Union, not with War though
What is the Marshall Plan?
US sent economic aid to Europe so they wouldnt go communist (France and Germany)
Who won the election of 1948?
Truman
Who were the dixicrats?
southern, white, democrats
Did the dixicrats like Truman?
No because he liked blacks
When was the Berlin Airlift?
1948
What was the Berlin Airlift?
When Russia tried to cut off food from East Berlin
What is the Fair Deal?
Social Justice, help the poor
Why did the Fair Deal stall in Congress?
Reform= Communism, DONT LIKE COMMUNIST
What is NATO?
Military Allience, you mess with our friends then you mess with us
When does China become Communist?
1949
When do the Soviets develop the bomb?
1949
What is the McCarran Internal Security Act?
Made people sware they were not communist in public
When was NSC-68 implemented?
1950
What is the Rosenberg Case?
A couple was killed because they were accused of being communist spys, flimsy evidence
When does the US explode its first hydrogen bomb?
1952
Who is associated with "Massive Retaliation"?
John Foster
What does Massive Retaliation really mean?
If you do something we dont like then well blow you up
Does the Hungarian revolt work?
NO
Do we help Hungry after its failed attempt to revolt?
NO
By the 1950 the war is...
out of controll
What did George Kennan say about Russia?
Dont fear Russia, Dont fight Russia, but put them in their place.
What was Kennans main point?
Dont become like the enemy
What does NSC-68 start?
The nuclear arms race
What questions is the NSC-68 document raising?
How do we react to Russia?
What did the NSC-68 file advise to do?
dont talk to Russia until the US is stronger
What was the answer we used to gain back our power after the war?
Build more weapons
What is the Arsenal of Democracy?
After WWII we are the richest country by making weapons
Why does STL become super rich?
Mcdonals Douglas makes a ton of weapons
Who is J. Robert Openheimer?
A scientist who helped build the atomic bomb
Did J. Robert Openheimer like the nuclear Arms Race?
NOO he opposed it
What happened when J.Robert Openheimer opposed the Nuclear Arms Race?
he was called a communist and fired
Who wins the Cold War?
US
What happens to the Soviet Unions economy after the Cold War is over?
Their economy is destroyed
Who were the Axis?
Germany, Italy, and Japan
Why did Stalin and Churchill sign the Atantic Charter?
they wanted military aid
Who gives the Iron Curtin Speech?
Churchill, because Truman had no pull
What does the IRON CURTIN speech "Informally" announce?
The Cold War
What is the purpose for the Iron Cutin Speech?
Tell the Americans that Russia is BAD
What does the NSC-68 offer the Cold War?
A blueprint
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
internment camps
Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.
Why didn't the United States jump right into WWII (waited until 1941 while countries in Europe were already in the war since 1939)?
Our country was "isolationist" meaning that we didn't want to get engaged in matters overseas. It all seemed so far away that we didn't feel the effects of it like those in Europe did. We were also against Communism and saw Hitler as a way to control the spread of Communism. We also had groups in the US who were anti-British.
What country did Germany invade that caused Britain and France to declare war, officially kicking off WWII in 1939?
Poland
What event caused the United States to jump into WWII?
The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.
Lend-Lease Act
Created by FDR in 1941; allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S. provided that the country promises to return it all after the war
Why did the Soviet's break their secret pact with Germany in 1941?
Germany renounced his nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union and invaded that country in June 1941. The US then uses the Lend-Lease Act to provide billions of dollars of support to the Soviets.
D-Day
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
About how many Jews were exterminated in Nazi death camps?
6 million
Hitler's "final solution"
the Nazi Party's plan to murder the entire Jewish population of Europe and the Soviet Union
What types of things did FDR institute in order to encourage citizens to support the war effort?
incentives to spur production like low-interest loans, tax breaks, contract with guaranteed profits, created the War Production Board, War manpower Commission and the Office of Price Administration. Began withholding income taxes directly from weekly paychecks.
What effect did WWII have on the US economy?
A very positive one. Our production and manufacturing rose drastically (more jobs for everyone)
What did FDR create in 1942 to spread the propaganda that WWII was "a people's war for freedom?"
Office of War Information - used radio, film, posters, the press etc.
How did women's roles change during WWII?
They were used to fill the workforce in industrial jobs traditionally filled by men (now vacant because the men were off to war)
Rosie the Riveter
symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
Economic Bill of Rights
(1944) Roosevelt's proposed new Bill of Rights. This would include a job with a living wage, freedom from unfair competition and monopolies, a home, medical care, education, and social security. While this Bill of Rights never passed Congress, its ideas were mirrored in the GI Bill of Rights, which helped many veterans get good educations and receive home mortgages.
patriotic assimilation
-WWII created a melting pot for European immigrants and their children
-US government promoted group equaltiy
-"Persons of many lands can live together...and if they believe in freedom they can become a united people"--Pearl Buck

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